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Nikolaidis P.T.,Hellenic Army Academy | Ingebrigtsen J.,University of Nordland | Povoas S.C.,Research Center in Sports | Moss S.,University of Chester | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness | Year: 2015

Aim: The purpose of this study was to examine the variation in physical and physiological characteristics according to playing position in adolescent and adult male team handball (TH) players. Methods: Adolescent (N.=57, aged 14.9±1.4 yr) and adult (N.=39, 26.6±5.7 yr) players were examined for anthropometric characteristics, somatotype and body composition, and performed the physical working capacity test, a force-velocity test, the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT), sit-and-reach test, handgrip strength test, squat jump (SJ), countermovement vertical jump without (CMJ) and with arm-swing, and a 30-s Bosco test. Eccentric utilization ratio (EUR) was calculated as the ratio CMJ to SJ. Results: In adult players, there were significant differences between wings and the other positions with regard to anthropometric and body composition parameters (body mass, -17.9% to -13.2%; height, -5.3% to -4.3%; and fat-free mass, -13.7% to -9.9%) and anaerobic power assessed by WAnT (peak power, -20.5% to -15.2%; and mean power, -20% to -14.8%); however, these characteristics did not differ significantly in adolescents, in which the only statistically significant difference was found between goalkeepers and the other positions in EUR (+8.1%). Conclusion: Therefore, the differences in physical and physiological characteristics between playing positions are age-dependent. As adult players in this study were taken from players competing in the top Greek league, findings could serve as a base for talent identification and development for future studies. Moreover, knowledge about positional differences might enhance the ability to make tailored position-specific training programs among adult and adolescent players in the future. Source

Povoas S.C.A.,Research Center in Sports | Povoas S.C.A.,Maia Institute of Higher Education | Ascensao A.A.M.R.,University of Porto | Magalhaes J.,University of Porto | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research | Year: 2014

This study aimed at describing the physiological demands and fatigue development during elite male handball matches. Our hypothesis was that players perform multiple high-intensity activities during periods of the game and develop temporary and endmatch neuromuscular fatigue. Time-motion analyses and heart rate (HR) recordings were performed in 40 players during 12 competitive matches. Blood samples were collected, and sprint, jump, and intermittent exercise performance (Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance level 2 test [YYIE2]) was assessed for 18 players at baseline conditions and after 2 competitive matches, and additional blood sampling and testing were performed for 12 of these players during a friendly match. The time spent with high-intensity running (4.4 ± 2.0 to 3.1 ± 1.7%), the frequency of demanding actions (61 ± 5 to 54 ± 6), and the time with HR above 80%HRmax (62 ± 21 to 41 ± 17%) were lowered from the first to the second half. Average blood lactate during the match was 3.6 ± 2.1 (1.3- 8.6) mM. Plasma free fatty acids (FFA), glycerol, glucose, and uric acid increased (p ≤ 0.05) during the first half and plasma FFA and glycerol increased further (p ≤ 0.05) during the second half. After an intense period in the second half, sprint performance was decreased by 3.9 ± 4.9%. After the match, YYIE2 (33.4 ± 8.7%), vertical jump (7.4 6± 6.5%), and 20-m sprint performance (1.6 ± 2.6%) was lower (p ≤ 0.05) than at baseline. This study showed that the intensity is high in certain periods during elite male handball games and that physical performance is impaired both temporarily during and toward the end of games confirming our hypothesis. These findings enables physical trainers and coaches to plan and design proper game-specific training exercises aiming at delaying both temporary and end-game fatigue and strengthen the physiological rationale for the need for substitutions in various stages of match-play. © 2014 National Strength and Conditioning Association. Source

PoVoas S.C.A.,Research Center in Sports | PoVoas S.C.A.,Maia Institute of Higher Education | Seabra A.F.T.,University of Porto | AscensaO A.A.M.R.,University of Porto | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research | Year: 2012

Physical and physiological demands of elite team handball. J Strength Cond Res 26(12): 3365-3375, 2012-This study aimed to analyze elite team handball physical and physiological demands during match play. Time-motion (N = 30) and heart rate (HR; N = 60) analyses were performed throughout 10 official matches. The defined locomotor categories were standing still, walking, jogging, fast running, sprinting, backwards movement, sideways medium-intensity movement, and sideways high-intensity movement, and playing actions studied were jumps, shots, stops when preceded by high-intensity activities, changes of direction and one-on-one situations. During matches, the mean distances covered were 4,370 ± 702.0 m. Around 80% of the total time was spent standing still (43.0 ± 9.27%) and walking (35.0 ± 6.94%) and only 0.460.31% with sprinting. The most frequent high-intensity actions were stops, changes of direction, and one-on-one situations. Effective mean HR was 157 ± 18.0 b.min-1 (82 6 9.3% of HRmax), and total HR was 139 ± 31.9 b.min-1 (72 ± 16.7% of HRmax). The HR, time spent in high-intensity activities, frequency of stops, changes of direction, one-on-one situations, and most intense periods of the game were higher during the first half than during the second half (p ≤ 0.05). The opposite was observed for the number of time outs and the time between each change of activity (p = 0.00). Handball is an intermittent exercise that primarily uses aerobic metabolism, interspersed by high-intensity actions that greatly tax anaerobic metabolism. Additionally, exercise intensity decreases from the first to the second half of the match, suggesting that neuromuscular fatigue may occur during the game. The training of elite handball players should comprise exercises targeting the ability to perform specific high-intensity actions throughout the game and to rapidly recover during the less intense periods. © 2012 National Strength and Conditioning Association. © 2012 National Strength and Conditioning Association. Source

Ramirez-Campillo R.,University of Los Lagos | Burgos C.H.,Laboratory of Exercise science | Henriquez-Olguin C.,Laboratory of Exercise science | Andrade D.C.,Laboratory of Exercise science | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research | Year: 2015

The aim of the study was to compare the effects of bilateral, unilateral, or combined bilateral and unilateral plyometric training (PT) on muscle power output, endurance, and balance performance adaptations in young soccer players. Four groups of young soccer players (age 11.4 ± 2.2 years) were divided into control group (CG; n 14), bilateral group (BG; n 12), unilateral group (UG; n 16), and bilateral + unilateral group (B + UG; n 12). Players were measured in unilateral and bilateral countermovement jump with arms, 5 multiple bounds test, 20-cm drop jump reactive strength index, maximal kicking velocity, sprint and agility test time, endurance, and balance performance. The PT was applied during 6 weeks, 2 sessions per week, for a total of 2,160 jumps. After intervention, all PT groups showed a statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) change in all performance measures, with no statistically significant differences between treatments. Among the 21 performance measures, the B + UG showed a significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher performance change in 13 of them vs. the CG, whereas the UG and BG showed only 6 and 3, respectively. The current study showed that bilateral, unilateral, and combined bilateral and unilateral PT ensured significant improvement in several muscular power and endurance performance measures in young soccer players. However, the combination of unilateral and bilateral drills seems more advantageous to induce superior performance improvements. © 2015 National Strength and Conditioning Association. Source

Vilar L.,University of Lisbon | Araujo D.,University of Lisbon | Araujo D.,The Interdisciplinary Center | Davids K.,Queensland University of Technology | And 4 more authors.
European Journal of Sport Science | Year: 2014

Research on 1vs1 sub-phases in team sports has shown how one player coordinates his/her actions with his/her opponent and the location of a target/goal to attain performance objectives. In this study, we extended this approach to analysis of 5vs5 competitive performance in the team sport of futsal to provide a performance analysis framework that explains how players coordinate their actions to create/prevent opportunities to score goals. For this purpose, we recorded all 10 futsal matches of the 2009 Lusophony Games held in Lisbon. We analysed the displacement trajectories of a shooting attacker and marking defender in plays ending in a goal, a goalkeeper's save, and a defender's interception, at four specific moments during performance: (1) assisting attacker's ball reception and (2) moment of passing, (3) shooter's ball reception, and (4), shot on goal. Statistical analysis showed that when a goal was scored, the defender's angle to the goal and to the attacker tended to decrease, the attacker was able to move to the same distance to the goal alongside the defender, and the attacker was closer to the defender and moving at the same velocity (at least) as the defender. This study identified emergent patterns of coordination between attackers and defenders under key competitive task constraints, such as the location of the goal, which supported successful performance in futsal. © 2012 © 2012 European College of Sport Science. Source

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