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Courteix D.,University Blaise Pascal | Courteix D.,Australian Catholic University | Courteix D.,Research Center in Human Nutrition Auvergne | Valente-Dos-Santos J.,University of Lisbon | And 20 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Background Weight loss is a public health concern in obesity-related diseases such as metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, restrictive diets might induce bone loss. The nature of exercise and whether exercise with weight loss programs can protect against potential bone mass deficits remains unclear. Moreover, compliance is essential in intervention programs. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effects that modality and exercise compliance have on bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD). Methods We investigated 90 individuals with MetS who were recruited for the 1-year RESOLVE trial. Community-dwelling seniors with MetS were randomly assigned into three different modalities of exercise (intensive resistance, intensive endurance, moderate mixed) combined with a restrictive diet. They were compared to 44 healthy controls who did not undergo the intervention. Results This intensive lifestyle intervention (15-20 hours of training/week + restrictive diet) resulted in weight loss, body composition changes and health improvements. Baseline BMC and BMD for total body, lumbar spine and femoral neck did not differ between MetS groups and between MetS and controls. Despite changes over time, BMC or BMD did not differ between the three modalities of exercise and when compared with the controls. However, independent of exercise modality, compliant participants increased their BMC and BMD compared with their less compliant peers. Decreases in total body lean mass and negative energy balance significantly and independently contributed to decreases in lumbar spine BMC. Conclusion After the one year intervention, differences relating to exercise modalities were not evident. However, compliance with an intensive exercise program resulted in a significantly higher bone mass during energy restriction than non-compliance. Exercise is therefore beneficial to bone in the context of a weight loss program. Copyright: © 2015 Courteix et al.


Benoist D'Azy C.,Estaing University Hospital Center | Pereira B.,Estaing University Hospital Center | Naughton G.,Australian Catholic University | Chiambaretta F.,Estaing University Hospital Center | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Despite endophthalmitis being the most feared complication, antibioprophylaxis remains controversial in intravitreal injections. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on the effects of antibioprophylaxis in intravitreal injections in the prevention of endophthalmitis. The PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase and Science Direct databases were searched for studies comparing groups with and without antibiotics in intravitreal injection, with the use of the following keywords: "antibiotic∗", "endophthalmitis" and "intravitreal injection∗". To be included, studies needed to specify number of participants and number of endophthalmitis within each group (with and without antibiotics). We conducted meta-analysis on the prevalence of clinical endophthalmitis including both culture-proven and culture negative samples. Nine studies were included. A total of 88 incidences of endophthalmitis were reported from 174,159 injections (0.051% i.e., one incidence of endophthalmitis for 1979 injections). Specifically, 59 incidences of endophthalmitis were reported from 113,530 injections in the group with antibiotics (0.052% or one incidence of endophthalmitis for 1924 injections) and 29 incidences of endophthalmitis from 60,633 injections in the group without antibiotics (0.048% or one endophthalmitis for 2091 injections). Our meta-analysis did not report a significant difference in the prevalence of clinical endophthalimitis between the two groups with and without topical antibiotics: the odds ratio of clinical endophthalimitis was 0.804 (CI95% 0.384-1.682, p = 0.56) for the antibiotic group compared with the group without antibiotics. In conclusion, we performed the first large meta-analysis demonstrating that antibioprophylaxis is not required in intravitreal injections. Strict rules of asepsis remain the only evidence-based prophylaxis of endophthalmitis. The results support initiatives to reduce the global threat of resistance to antibiotics. © 2016 Benoist d'Azy et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Courtin R.,Estaing University Hospital Center | Pereira B.,Estaing University Hospital Center | Naughton G.,Australian Catholic University | Chamoux A.,Estaing University Hospital Center | And 7 more authors.
BMJ Open | Year: 2016

Objective: To evaluate the prevalence and risk factors of dry eye disease (DED) in workers using visual display terminals (VDT). Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources: We searched PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase and Science Direct databases for studies reporting DED prevalence in VDT workers. Results: 16 of the 9049 identified studies were included, with a total of 11 365 VDT workers. Despite a global DED prevalence of 49.5% (95% CI 47.5 to 50.6), ranging from 9.5% to 87.5%, important heterogeneity (I2=98.8%, p<0.0001) was observed. Variable diagnosis criteria used within studies were: questionnaires on symptoms, tear film anomalies and corneoconjunctival epithelial damage. Some studies combined criteria to define DED. Heterogeneous prevalence was associated with stratifications on symptoms (I2=98.7%, p<0.0001), tears (I2=98.5%, p<0.0001) and epithelial damage (I2=96.0%, p<0.0001). Stratification of studies with two criteria adjusted the prevalence to 54.0% (95% CI 52.1 to 55.9), whereas studies using three criteria resulted in a prevalence of 11.6% (95% CI 10.5 to 12.9). According to the literature, prevalence of DED was more frequent in females than in males and increased with age. Conclusions: Owing to the disparity of the diagnosis criteria studied to define DED, the global prevalence of 49.5% lacked reliability because of the important heterogeneity. We highlight the necessity of implementing common DED diagnostic criteria to allow a more reliable estimation in order to develop the appropriate preventive occupational actions.


Lanhers C.,Estaing University Hospital Center | Pereira B.,Estaing University Hospital Center | Naughton G.,Australian Catholic University | Trousselard M.,Armies Biomedical Research Institute | And 5 more authors.
Sports Medicine | Year: 2015

Background: Creatine is the most widely used supplementation to increase strength performance. However, the few meta-analyses are more than 10 years old and suffer from inclusion bias such as the absence of randomization and placebo, the diversity of the inclusion criteria (aerobic/endurance, anaerobic/strength), no evaluation on specific muscles or group of muscles, and the considerable amount of conflicting results within the last decade. Objective: The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate meta-analyzed effects of creatine supplementation on lower limb strength performance. Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analyses of all randomized controlled trials comparing creatine supplementation with a placebo, with strength performance of the lower limbs measured in exercises lasting less than 3 min. The search strategy used the keywords “creatine supplementation” and “performance”. Dependent variables were creatine loading, total dose, duration, the time-intervals between baseline (T0) and the end of the supplementation (T1), as well as any training during supplementation. Independent variables were age, sex, and level of physical activity at baseline. We conducted meta-analyses at T1, and on changes between T0 and T1. Each meta-analysis was stratified within lower limb muscle groups and exercise tests. Results: We included 60 studies (646 individuals in the creatine supplementation group and 651 controls). At T1, the effect size (ES) among stratification for squat and leg press were, respectively, 0.336 (95 % CI 0.047–0.625, p = 0.023) and 0.297 (95 % CI 0.098–0.496, p = 0.003). Overall quadriceps ES was 0.266 (95 % CI 0.150–0.381, p < 0.001). Global lower limb ES was 0.235 (95 % CI 0.125–0.346, p < 0.001). Meta-analysis on changes between T0 and T1 gave similar results. The meta-regression showed no links with characteristics of population or of supplementation, demonstrating the creatine efficacy effects, independent of all listed conditions. Conclusion: Creatine supplementation is effective in lower limb strength performance for exercise with a duration of less than 3 min, independent of population characteristic, training protocols, and supplementary doses and duration. © 2015, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

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