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Virudhunagar, India

Augustus G.D.P.S.,Research Center in Botany | Seiler G.J.,U.S. Department of Agriculture
Biomass and Bioenergy | Year: 2011

Ficus elastica known as the Indian rubber tree has a white, milky latex that is a source of natural rubber was analyzed for its phytochemicals as an intermediate energy source. The tree produces a high quantity of protein and oil (24.5 and 6.1% respectively). The polyphenol content was 4.2%, and hydrocarbon content was 2%. The gross calorific value of the plant sample was 28.7 MJ kg-1, much higher than that of methanol (22.4 MJ kg-1), but comparable to anthracite coal (29.7 MJ kg-1). The gross calorific value of the oil fraction was 32.8 MJ kg-1. This species also contains high levels of ortho-dihydroxy phenols which may be related to disease resistance to some pathogens. It also possesses compounds with antimicrobial activity and a range of pharmacological activities. F. elastica has several chemical constituents, other than rubber, which have potential uses and warrant further study. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Augustus G.D.P.S.,Research Center in Botany | Seiler G.J.,U.S. Department of Agriculture
Biomass and Bioenergy | Year: 2011

A concern about the declining supply of petroleum products has led to a renewed interest in evaluating plant species as potential alternate sources of energy. Five species of the Apocynaceae and three species of the Asclepiadaceae from the Western Ghats were evaluated as alternative sources of energy, oil, polyphenol, and phytochemicals. The highest protein content was observed in Caralluma attenuata with 6.6%. Plant samples of Aganosma cymosa yielded 10.3% oil. The highest polyphenol content was observed in Carissa carandas with 7.7%. Species of the Asclepiadaceae exhibited the highest quantity of hydrocarbon viz. Sarcostemma brevistigma (3.6%), C. attenuata (3.4%), and Tylophora asthmatica (2.7%). Carbohydrate content was high in S. brevistigma with 6.9%. A whole plant gross calorific value of 16.5 MJ kg-1 for Nerium odorum (white flower variety) was the highest value observed. The highest gross calorific value observed in the oil fraction was from C. attenuata with 33.4 MJ kg-1. The hydrocarbon fraction of T. asthmatica exhibited the highest gross calorific value of 39.2 M Jkg-1. The hydrocarbon fractions were further analyzed using NMR to determine the type of isoprene present. Fatty acid compositions of oil samples were also analyzed. All the species except N. odorum (white flower variety) contained higher quantities of saturated fatty acids than unsaturated fatty acids. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Arun A.,Thiagarajar College Autonomous | Eyini M.,Research Center in Botany
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2011

A total of 130 wild basidiomycetes fungi were collected and identified. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) degradation by the potential Phellinus sp., Polyporus sulphureus (in liquid state fermentation (LSF), solid state fermentation (SSF), in soil) and lignin biodegradation were compared with those of a bacterial isolate and their corresponding cocultures. The PAHs degradation was higher in LSF and the efficiency of the organisms declined in SSF and in soil treatment. Phellinus sp. showed better degradation in SSF and in soil. Bacillus pumilus showed higher degradation in LSF. B. pumilus was seen to have lower lignin degradation than the fungal cultures and the cocultures could not enhance the degradation. Phellinus sp. which had higher PAHs and lignin degradation showed higher biosurfactant production than other organism. Manganese peroxidase (MnP) was the predominant enzyme in Phellinus sp. while lignin peroxidase (Lip) was predominant in P. sulphureus. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Aron S.,Research Center in Botany | Mehalingam P.,Research Center in Botany
Phytomorphology: An International Journal of Plant Morphology | Year: 2012

The present study deals with the macroscopical and microscopical studies of root and leaf of Mollugo nudicaulis Lam. Detailed anatomical characters were observed with section of leaf, young and old root. The anatomy of the leaf and root were studied by taking transverse section. The leaf palisade layer was horizontally transcurrent along the adaxial part of the midrib. The vascular strand was single and circular. The crystals were druses and stomata were anomocytic type. The secondary phloem was a thin continuous cylinder of short radial files of small cells. Secondary xylem was 1.5um thick. It included two less distinct growth rings. The vessels were semi ring porous. The microscopic studies of the powder revealed the occurrence of fibres, fibre sclereids and vessel elements. Various parameters like powder analysis, fluorescence analysis and physico-chemical constant were studied. These observations would be of immense value in the botanical identification and standardization of the drug in the crude form. This study would help distinguish the drug from its other species.

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