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Agueda B.,Research Center Forestal Of Valonsadero | Agreda T.,Research Center Forestal Of Valonsadero | Martinez-Pena F.,Research Center Forestal Of Valonsadero
Mycorrhiza | Year: 2013

The annual belowground dynamics of extraradical soil mycelium and sporocarp production of two ectomycorrhizal fungi, Boletus edulis and Lactarius deliciosus, have been studied in two different pine forests (Pinar Grande and Pinares Llanos, respectively) in Soria (central Spain). Soil samples (five per plot) were taken monthly (from September 2009 to August 2010 in Pinar Grande and from September 2010 to September 2011 in Pinares Llanos) in eight permanent plots (four for each site). B. edulis and L. deliciosus extraradical soil mycelium was quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction, with DNA extracted from soil samples, using specific primers and TaqMan® probes. The quantities of B. edulis soil mycelium did not differ significantly between plots, but there was a significant difference over time with a maximum in February (0.1576 mg mycelium/g soil) and a minimum in October (0.0170 mg mycelium/g soil). For L. deliciosus, significant differences were detected between plots and over time. The highest amount of mycelium was found in December (1.84 mg mycelium/g soil) and the minimum in February (0.0332 mg mycelium/g soil). B. edulis mycelium quantities were positively correlated with precipitation of the current month and negatively correlated with the mean temperature of the previous month. Mycelium biomass of L. deliciosus was positively correlated with relative humidity and negatively correlated with mean temperature and radiation. No significant correlation between productivity of the plots with the soil mycelium biomass was observed for any of the two species. No correlations were found between B. edulis sporocarp production and weather parameters. Sporocarp production of L. deliciosus was positively correlated with precipitation and relative humidity and negatively correlated with maximum and minimum temperatures. Both species have similar distribution over time, presenting an annual dynamics characterized by a seasonal variability, with a clear increase on the amounts of biomass during the coldest months of the year. Soil mycelial dynamics of both species are strongly dependent on the weather. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Agueda B.,Research Center Forestal Of Valonsadero | Martinez-Pena F.,Research Center Forestal Of Valonsadero
Mycorrhiza | Year: 2012

The availability of most edible ectomycorrhizal mushrooms depends on their natural fructification. Sporocarp formation of these fungi is linked to habitat characteristics and climate conditions, but these data alone do not explain all the trends of fungal fruiting and dynamics. It could be hypothesized that the amount of soil mycelia could also be related to the production of carpophores. Soil samples (five cylinders of 250 cm 3 per plot) were taken monthly, from September to November, in five fenced permanent plots (5 × 5 m) in Pinar Grande (Soria, Spain), a Pinus sylvestris stand situated in the north of the Sistema Ibérico mountain range. Plots were chosen to establish a gradient of Boletus edulis productivity from 0 to 38.5 kg/ha year, according to the mean fresh weight of sporocarps collected during the last 10 years. B. edulis ectomycorrhizal root tips were identified in each soil sample according to its morphology and counted. DNA extractions were performed with the PowerSoil TM DNA Isolation Kit and quantification of extraradical soil mycelium by real-time polymerase chain reaction using specific primers and a TaqMan® probe. The concentration of soil mycelium of B. edulis (mg mycelium/g soil) did not differ significantly between plots (p = 0.1397), and sampling time (p = 0.7643) within the fructification period. The number of mycorrhizal short roots per soil volume showed significant differences between the plots (p = 0.0050) and the three sampling times (p > 0.0001). No significant correlation between the number of mycorrhizas and the productivity of the plot (kg of B. edulis/ha year) was detected (p = 0.615). A statistically significant positive correlation (p = 0.0481) was detected between the concentration of mycelia of B. edulis in the soil samples and the presence of short roots mycorrhizal with B. edulis in these samples. The productivity of the plots, in terms of sporocarps produced during the last 10 years, was not correlated either with the concentration of soil mycelium or with the presence or abundance of ectomycorrhizas. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Aldea J.,Research Center Forestal Of Valonsadero | Martinez-Pena F.,Research Center Forestal Of Valonsadero | Diaz-Balteiro L.,ETS Ingenieros de Montes
European Journal of Forest Research | Year: 2012

Some non-timber forestry products, such as mushrooms, have not typically been included in forest management plans, creating a scenario whereby timber production is the main objective and fungal resources are an afterthought. However, in certain forests, wild mushrooms reach a significant level of production. This paper researches a strategic forest management plan that would include the production of both timber and mushrooms as principal objectives while still adhering to constraints normally considered within forest management. A case study is provided featuring two main groups of edible wild mushrooms, where the two aforementioned objectives have been optimised individually. Lacking a satisfactory solution for the decision-maker, a model based on multi-criteria decision analysis (compromise programming) has been constructed to yield more attractive solutions. Information regarding mushrooms is based on the actual amount collected in the forest and not on potential production. Measured in monetary terms, mushroom production can be easily compared with timber production. Income associated with mushroom production is equal to approximately 20 % of that generated by timber throughout the planning horizon when final inventory and regulation constraints are imposed. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.


Martinez-Pena F.,Research Center Forestal Of Valonsadero | de-Miguel S.,University of Eastern Finland | Pukkala T.,University of Eastern Finland | Bonet J.A.,University of Lleida | And 4 more authors.
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2012

Mushrooms in general, and Boletus edulis and Lactarius deliciosus in particular, are important non-wood forest products worldwide. Despite their economic and ecological importance, models that describe the influence of different factors on mushroom yield are few. These models would support multi-objective forest management and planning that takes into account mushroom production. This study aims at providing models for predicting the total yield of wild ectomycorrhizal mushrooms and, especially, of L. group deliciosus and B. edulis. Mushroom data were collected in 18 permanent plots in pure even-aged Pinus sylvestris stands during fifteen consecutive years. Variables describing weather conditions, stand structure and local site characteristics were used as predictors in the modeling process. Rainfall and temperature were significant predictors in all the fitted models. In addition, the total yield of ectomycorrhizal fungi was significantly affected by dominant height and stand age. The production of L. group deliciosus was influenced by dominant height and stand basal area. The equation fitted for B. edulis, to our knowledge, is the first model for this species. It shows that stand basal area is a strong factor influencing the yield. The equations presented in this study enable predictions of mushroom yield under different forest management schedules and climatic scenarios. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Sanchez S.,CSIC - Centro de Investigación y Tecnología Agroalimentaria | Agreda T.,Research Center Forestal Of Valonsadero | Agueda B.,Research Center Forestal Of Valonsadero | Martin M.,CSIC - Centro de Investigación y Tecnología Agroalimentaria | And 3 more authors.
Mycorrhiza | Year: 2014

Owners of black truffle (Tuber melanosporum) plantations are concerned about the persistence of its mycorrhizas and mycelium in the soil, especially until the appearance of the "truffle burn" areas and the triggering of sporocarp production, at least 5-7 years after planting truffle-inoculated seedlings. During this period, the farmer does not know whether his management is promoting black truffle development. To study the presence and abundance of T. melanosporum ectomycorrhizas in plantations, two sampling methods, direct sampling of root tips and soil core collection, are compared by analyzing 48 evergreen oak trees (Quercus ilex) inoculated with truffle. Those trees are grouped by age (<6, 6-9, >9 years old) and presence or absence of truffle production. T. melanosporum was present in 46 out of the 48 studied trees, and its ectomycorrhizas appeared in 65 % of the ectomycorrhizal tips. Its abundance is significantly higher with productive trees and young trees. Direct sampling of root tips and soil core collection were equally effective in detecting this species, although soil core collection proved a better method to also evaluate ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity. To detect the presence of T. melanosporum in a given plantation, three samples suffice, with a single sample per random tree. Although the presence of mycorrhizas is not a sure sign of the future success of a black truffle plantation, its absence influences managers as to whether to continue culturing truffles in a plantation. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Martinez-Pena F.,Research Center Forestal Of Valonsadero | Agreda T.,Research Center Forestal Of Valonsadero | Agueda B.,Research Center Forestal Of Valonsadero | Ortega-Martinez P.,Research Center Forestal Of Valonsadero | And 2 more authors.
Mycorrhiza | Year: 2012

With the aim of increasing knowledge of community structure, dynamics and production of ectomycorrhizal fungi, edible sporocarp yields were monitored between 1995 and 2004 in a Pinus sylvestris stand in the northeast zone of the Iberian Peninsula. A random sampling design was performed by stand age class according to the forest management plan: 0-15, 16-30, 31-50, 51-70 and over 71-years-old. Eighteen 150 m plots were established and sampled weekly every year from September to December. One hundred and nineteen taxa belonging to 51 genera were collected, 40 of which were edible and represented 74% of the total biomass. Boletus edulis, Lactarius deliciosus, Cantharellus cibarius and Tricholoma portentosum sporocarps, which are considered to be of high commercial value, represented 34% of the total production. B. edulis and L. deliciosus were the most remarkable and abundant species, and both were collected in more than 60% of the samplings. B. edulis fructified every year of the experiment; its mean production was 40 kg/ha and year and its maximum productivity was more than 94 kg/ha in 1998. The age class with the largest production of this taxa was the fourth (51-70 years), with 70 kg/ha. L. deliciosus only failed to fructify one autumn (2000); its mean production was almost 10 kg/ha and its maximum productivity close to 30 kg/ha in 1997. The maximum productivity of this species was found in the second (16-30 years) and fifth (71-90 years) stand age classes, with 18 and 16 kg/ha, respectively. Advances in this field can certainly offer new insights into factors affecting sporocarp production. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Alonso Ponce R.,Research Center Forestal Of Valonsadero | Agueda B.,Research Center Forestal Of Valonsadero | Agreda T.,Research Center Forestal Of Valonsadero | Modrego M.P.,Research Center Forestal Of Valonsadero | And 4 more authors.
Fungal Ecology | Year: 2011

The ectomycorrhizal association between Cistus ladanifer and Boletus edulis is a productive relationship due to the economic value of the fungus and the role of the plant in the protection and restoration of areas heavily affected by fires. This study aims to define the realized niche of B. edulis and to predict its distribution in peninsular Spain, using species distribution models based on climatic variables and corrected under lithological criteria. Parameters have been obtained from various sources including models for climatic estimation and 19 sites where B. edulis sporocarps are sure to fruit in pure C. ladanifer scrublands. The climatic niche is mesothermal, Mediterranean and humid. Soils are strongly acid, with loam texture, low in organic matter and in an oligotrophic mull form. According to the presence/expected curve 16.3. % of the potential area is considered to be optimal and most of the suitable territory is within the Castilla y León region. Fungal spatial distribution models are reliable tools for managing these scrublands in western Spain. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and The British Mycological Society.

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