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Agueda B.,Research Center Forestal Of Valonsadero | Martinez-Pena F.,Research Center Forestal Of Valonsadero

The availability of most edible ectomycorrhizal mushrooms depends on their natural fructification. Sporocarp formation of these fungi is linked to habitat characteristics and climate conditions, but these data alone do not explain all the trends of fungal fruiting and dynamics. It could be hypothesized that the amount of soil mycelia could also be related to the production of carpophores. Soil samples (five cylinders of 250 cm 3 per plot) were taken monthly, from September to November, in five fenced permanent plots (5 × 5 m) in Pinar Grande (Soria, Spain), a Pinus sylvestris stand situated in the north of the Sistema Ibérico mountain range. Plots were chosen to establish a gradient of Boletus edulis productivity from 0 to 38.5 kg/ha year, according to the mean fresh weight of sporocarps collected during the last 10 years. B. edulis ectomycorrhizal root tips were identified in each soil sample according to its morphology and counted. DNA extractions were performed with the PowerSoil TM DNA Isolation Kit and quantification of extraradical soil mycelium by real-time polymerase chain reaction using specific primers and a TaqMan® probe. The concentration of soil mycelium of B. edulis (mg mycelium/g soil) did not differ significantly between plots (p = 0.1397), and sampling time (p = 0.7643) within the fructification period. The number of mycorrhizal short roots per soil volume showed significant differences between the plots (p = 0.0050) and the three sampling times (p > 0.0001). No significant correlation between the number of mycorrhizas and the productivity of the plot (kg of B. edulis/ha year) was detected (p = 0.615). A statistically significant positive correlation (p = 0.0481) was detected between the concentration of mycelia of B. edulis in the soil samples and the presence of short roots mycorrhizal with B. edulis in these samples. The productivity of the plots, in terms of sporocarps produced during the last 10 years, was not correlated either with the concentration of soil mycelium or with the presence or abundance of ectomycorrhizas. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source

Aldea J.,Research Center Forestal Of Valonsadero | Martinez-Pena F.,Research Center Forestal Of Valonsadero | Diaz-Balteiro L.,E.T.S. Ingenieros de Montes
European Journal of Forest Research

Some non-timber forestry products, such as mushrooms, have not typically been included in forest management plans, creating a scenario whereby timber production is the main objective and fungal resources are an afterthought. However, in certain forests, wild mushrooms reach a significant level of production. This paper researches a strategic forest management plan that would include the production of both timber and mushrooms as principal objectives while still adhering to constraints normally considered within forest management. A case study is provided featuring two main groups of edible wild mushrooms, where the two aforementioned objectives have been optimised individually. Lacking a satisfactory solution for the decision-maker, a model based on multi-criteria decision analysis (compromise programming) has been constructed to yield more attractive solutions. Information regarding mushrooms is based on the actual amount collected in the forest and not on potential production. Measured in monetary terms, mushroom production can be easily compared with timber production. Income associated with mushroom production is equal to approximately 20 % of that generated by timber throughout the planning horizon when final inventory and regulation constraints are imposed. © 2012 Springer-Verlag. Source

Sanchez S.,CSIC - Centro de Investigacion y Tecnologia Agroalimentaria | Agreda T.,Research Center Forestal Of Valonsadero | Agueda B.,Research Center Forestal Of Valonsadero | Martin M.,CSIC - Centro de Investigacion y Tecnologia Agroalimentaria | And 3 more authors.

Owners of black truffle (Tuber melanosporum) plantations are concerned about the persistence of its mycorrhizas and mycelium in the soil, especially until the appearance of the "truffle burn" areas and the triggering of sporocarp production, at least 5-7 years after planting truffle-inoculated seedlings. During this period, the farmer does not know whether his management is promoting black truffle development. To study the presence and abundance of T. melanosporum ectomycorrhizas in plantations, two sampling methods, direct sampling of root tips and soil core collection, are compared by analyzing 48 evergreen oak trees (Quercus ilex) inoculated with truffle. Those trees are grouped by age (<6, 6-9, >9 years old) and presence or absence of truffle production. T. melanosporum was present in 46 out of the 48 studied trees, and its ectomycorrhizas appeared in 65 % of the ectomycorrhizal tips. Its abundance is significantly higher with productive trees and young trees. Direct sampling of root tips and soil core collection were equally effective in detecting this species, although soil core collection proved a better method to also evaluate ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity. To detect the presence of T. melanosporum in a given plantation, three samples suffice, with a single sample per random tree. Although the presence of mycorrhizas is not a sure sign of the future success of a black truffle plantation, its absence influences managers as to whether to continue culturing truffles in a plantation. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Martinez-Pena F.,Research Center Forestal Of Valonsadero | Agreda T.,Research Center Forestal Of Valonsadero | Agueda B.,Research Center Forestal Of Valonsadero | Ortega-Martinez P.,Research Center Forestal Of Valonsadero | And 2 more authors.

With the aim of increasing knowledge of community structure, dynamics and production of ectomycorrhizal fungi, edible sporocarp yields were monitored between 1995 and 2004 in a Pinus sylvestris stand in the northeast zone of the Iberian Peninsula. A random sampling design was performed by stand age class according to the forest management plan: 0-15, 16-30, 31-50, 51-70 and over 71-years-old. Eighteen 150 m plots were established and sampled weekly every year from September to December. One hundred and nineteen taxa belonging to 51 genera were collected, 40 of which were edible and represented 74% of the total biomass. Boletus edulis, Lactarius deliciosus, Cantharellus cibarius and Tricholoma portentosum sporocarps, which are considered to be of high commercial value, represented 34% of the total production. B. edulis and L. deliciosus were the most remarkable and abundant species, and both were collected in more than 60% of the samplings. B. edulis fructified every year of the experiment; its mean production was 40 kg/ha and year and its maximum productivity was more than 94 kg/ha in 1998. The age class with the largest production of this taxa was the fourth (51-70 years), with 70 kg/ha. L. deliciosus only failed to fructify one autumn (2000); its mean production was almost 10 kg/ha and its maximum productivity close to 30 kg/ha in 1997. The maximum productivity of this species was found in the second (16-30 years) and fifth (71-90 years) stand age classes, with 18 and 16 kg/ha, respectively. Advances in this field can certainly offer new insights into factors affecting sporocarp production. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source

Alonso Ponce R.,Research Center Forestal Of Valonsadero | Agueda B.,Research Center Forestal Of Valonsadero | Agreda T.,Research Center Forestal Of Valonsadero | Modrego M.P.,Research Center Forestal Of Valonsadero | And 4 more authors.
Fungal Ecology

The ectomycorrhizal association between Cistus ladanifer and Boletus edulis is a productive relationship due to the economic value of the fungus and the role of the plant in the protection and restoration of areas heavily affected by fires. This study aims to define the realized niche of B. edulis and to predict its distribution in peninsular Spain, using species distribution models based on climatic variables and corrected under lithological criteria. Parameters have been obtained from various sources including models for climatic estimation and 19 sites where B. edulis sporocarps are sure to fruit in pure C. ladanifer scrublands. The climatic niche is mesothermal, Mediterranean and humid. Soils are strongly acid, with loam texture, low in organic matter and in an oligotrophic mull form. According to the presence/expected curve 16.3. % of the potential area is considered to be optimal and most of the suitable territory is within the Castilla y León region. Fungal spatial distribution models are reliable tools for managing these scrublands in western Spain. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and The British Mycological Society. Source

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