Research Center Forestal

Madrid, Spain

Research Center Forestal

Madrid, Spain
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Navascues M.,Research Center Forestal | Navascues M.,Ecole Normale Superieure de Paris | Stoeckel S.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Mariette S.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Heredity | Year: 2010

How self-incompatibility systems are maintained in plant populations is still a debated issue. Theoretical models predict that self-incompatibility systems break down according to the intensity of inbreeding depression and number of S-alleles. Other studies have explored the function of asexual reproduction in the maintenance of self-incompatibility. However, the population genetics of partially asexual, self-incompatible populations are poorly understood and previous studies have failed to consider all possible effects of asexual reproduction or could only speculate on those effects. In this study, we investigated how partial asexuality may affect genetic diversity at the S-locus and fitness in small self-incompatible populations. A genetic model including an S-locus and a viability locus was developed to perform forward simulations of the evolution of populations of various sizes. Drift combined with partial asexuality produced a decrease in the number of alleles at the S-locus. In addition, an excess of heterozygotes was present in the population, causing an increase in mutation load. This heterozygote excess was enhanced by the self-incompatibility system in small populations. In addition, in highly asexual populations, individuals produced asexually had some fitness advantages over individuals produced sexually, because sexual reproduction produces homozygotes of the deleterious allele, contrary to asexual reproduction. Our results suggest that future research on the function of asexuality for the maintenance of self-incompatibility will need to (1) account for whole-genome fitness (mutation load generated by asexuality, self-incompatibility and drift) and (2) acknowledge that the maintenance of self-incompatibility may not be independent of the maintenance of sex itself. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

Fernandez J.,I. N. I. A. Ctra. Coruna Km 7 | Gonzalez-martinez S.C.,Research Center Forestal
Molecular Ecology Resources | Year: 2010

Cost-effective ways of controlling inbreeding in conservation or productive plantations imply the allocation of individuals reducing the possibility of close relatives' mating and, consequently, limiting inbreeding. sofsog is a suite of programs, which helps to design plantation sites. First, if the plantation scheme involves several plots, it allows distribution of individuals available among different sites minimizing within-site global coancestry. Then, it yields a plantation design for each site, either following the classical permutated neighbourhood strategy or the recently developed method by Fernández and González-Martínez. This new method allows the implementation of different pollen dispersion kernels, and to include in the designing strategy any available information on individual relationships, reproductive success, differences in phenology, etc., via weighting or penalization matrices. Additionally, the package includes a tool for calculating the molecular coancestry (Identity By State) from codominant marker data. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Gomez-Garay A.,Complutense University of Madrid | Lopez J.A.,CSIC - National Center for Metallurgical Research | Camafeita E.,CSIC - National Center for Metallurgical Research | Bueno M.A.,Research Center Forestal | Pintos B.,Complutense University of Madrid
Journal of Proteomics | Year: 2013

Quercus suber L. is a forest tree with remarkable ecological, social and economic value in the southern Europe ecosystems. To circumvent the difficulties of breeding such long-lived species like Q. suber in a conventional fashion, clonal propagation of Q. suber elite trees can be carried out, although this process is sometimes unsuccessful. To help decipher the complex program underlying the development of Q. suber somatic embryos from the first early stage until maturity, a proteomic approach based on DIGE and MALDI-MS has been envisaged. Results highlighted several key processes involved in the three developmental stages (proliferative, cotyledonary and mature) of Q. suber somatic embryogenesis studied. Results show that the proliferation stage is characterized by fermentation as an alternative energy source at the first steps of somatic embryo development, as well as by up-regulation of proteins involved in cell division. In this stage reactive oxygen species play a role in proliferation, while other proteins like CAD and PR5 seem to be implied in embryonic competence. In the transition to the cotyledonary stage diverse ROS detoxification enzymes are activated and reserve products (mainly carbohydrates and proteins) are accumulated, whereas energy production is increased probably to participate in the synthesis of primary metabolites such as amino acids and fatty acids. Finally, in the mature stage ethylene accumulation regulates embryo development. Biological significance: Quercus suber L. is a forest tree with remarkable ecological, social and economic value in the southern Europe ecosystems. To circumvent the difficulties of breeding such long-lived species like Q. suber in a conventional fashion, clonal propagation of Q. suber elite trees can be carried out, although this process is sometimes unsuccessful. To help decipher the complex program underlying the development of Q. suber somatic embryos from the first early stage until maturity, in deep studies become necessary. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Translational Plant Proteomics. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Niggemann M.,University of Marburg | Wiegand T.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research | Robledo-Arnuncio J.J.,Research Center Forestal | Bialozyt R.,University of Marburg
Journal of Ecology | Year: 2012

1. Obtaining accurate estimates of the pollen dispersal kernel is central to a wide range of ecological studies. Assessing their statistical uncertainty is as important, but rarely considered. 2. We developed a new method of marked point processes for nonparametric estimation of dispersal kernels based on data of genetic paternity analysis that does not require assumptions about the shape of the dispersal distribution. This allows for construction of Monte Carlo simulation envelopes of a given null model, such as random mating, and for uncertainty assessment of the observed dispersal kernel. 3. We applied our method to characterize spatial patterns of pollen flow in an isolated population of Populus nigra in Central Germany and to assess the associated statistical uncertainty in estimates of within-population dispersal kernels. We compared our nonparametric within-population kernel estimate with that of established methods of parametric kernel fitting including: (i) a general mating model, (ii) a simplified mating model using categorical paternity data and (iii) least-squares regression of the nonparametric kernel estimate. 4. Our analysis showed a significant departure from the random mating null model. We found a highly significant excess of mating events at short distances (<400m) and a weakly significant shortage of mating events at larger distances (1500-2000m). Simulation envelopes of the null model were very wide at larger distances (>2000m), indicating large uncertainty on the detailed shape of the kernel's tail. 5. Results of the point pattern analysis were consistent with kernel fits using published maximum-likelihood mating models. Model selection revealed that two-component pollen dispersal kernels were the most parsimonious functions. 6. Synthesis. Our approach of nonparametric kernel estimation could be widely applied for dispersal data from genetic paternity analysis and complements traditional kernel estimation by providing a nonparametric kernel estimate and effective methods for an uncertainty assessment in kernel estimation. Our results indicate that statistical model fitting may substantially underestimate the uncertainty in kernel estimation, especially at larger distances. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Ecology © 2011 British Ecological Society.

De Simon B.F.,Research Center Forestal | Sanz M.,IDI Industrial Tonelera Navarra S.L. INTONA | Cadahia E.,Research Center Forestal | Martinez J.,University of La Rioja | And 2 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

The nonanthocyanic phenolic composition of four red wines, one white, and one rosé aged using barrels and chips of cherry, chestnut, false acacia, ash and oak wood was studied by LC-DAD-ESI/MS, to identify the phenolic compounds that woods other than oak contribute to wines, and if some of them can be used as chemical markers of ageing with them. A total of 68 nonanthocyanic phenolic compounds were identified, 15 found only in wines aged with acacia wood, 6 with cherry wood, and 1 with chestnut wood. Thus, the nonanthocyanic phenolic profile could be a useful tool to identify wines aged in contact with these woods. In addition, some differences in the nonanthocyanic phenolic composition of wines were detected related to both the levels of compounds provided by each wood species and the different evolution of flavonols and flavanols in wines during ageing in barrels or in contact with chips. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Sanchez-Salguero R.,Research Center Forestal | Sanchez-Salguero R.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Sanchez-Salguero R.,Research Center Forestal Cifor Inia | Navarro-Cerrillo R.M.,University of Cordoba, Spain | And 2 more authors.
Climatic Change | Year: 2012

The negative impacts of severe drought on the growth and vigor of tree species and their relationship with forest decline have not been properly evaluated taking into account the differential responses to such stress of trees, sites and species. We evaluated these responses by quantifying the changes in radial growth of plantations of four pine species (Pinus sylvestris, Pinus nigra, Pinus pinaster, Pinus halepensis) which showed distinct decline and defoliation levels in southeastern Spain. We used dendrochronological methods, defoliation records, linear mixed models of basal area increment and dynamic factor analysis to quantify the responses of trees at the species and individual scales to site conditions and drought stress. In the region a temperature rise and a decrease in spring precipitation have led to drier conditions during the late twentieth century characterized by severe droughts in the 1990s and 2000s. As expected, the defoliation levels and the reductions in basal area increment were higher in those species more vulnerable to drought-induced xylem embolism (P. sylvestris) than in those more resistant (P. halepensis). Species adapted to xeric conditions but with high growth rates, such as P. pinaster, were also vulnerable to drought-induced decline. The reduction in basal area increment and the defoliation events occurred after consecutive severe droughts. A decrease in spring precipitation, which is the main driver of radial growth, is the most plausible cause of recent forest decline. The sharp growth reduction and widespread defoliation of the most affected pine plantations of Scots pine make their future persistence in drought-prone sites unlikely under the forecasted warmer and drier conditions. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Steinitz O.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Robledo-Arnuncio J.J.,Research Center Forestal | Nathan R.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Molecular Ecology | Year: 2012

Afforestation is a common and widespread management practice throughout the world, yet its implications for the genetic diversity of native populations are still poorly understood. We examined the effect of Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis) plantations on the genetic composition of nearby conspecific native populations. We focused on two native populations in Israel with different levels of isolation from the surrounding plantations and compared the genetic diversity of naturally established young trees within the native populations with that of local native adults, using nine nuclear microsatellite markers. We found that the genetic composition of the recruits was significantly different from that of local adults in both populations, with allelic frequency changes between generations that could not be ascribed to random drift, but rather to substantial gene flow from the surrounding planted Aleppo pine populations. The more isolated population experienced a lower gene-flow level (22%) than the less isolated population (49%). The genetic divergence between native populations at the adult-tree stage (F st = 0.32) was more than twice as high as that of the young trees naturally established around native adults (F st = 0.15). Our findings provide evidence for a rapid genetic homogenization process of native populations following the massive planting efforts in the last decades. These findings have important implications for forest management and nature conservation and constitute a warning sign for the risk of translocation of biota for local biodiversity. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Fernandez De Simon B.,Research Center Forestal | Martinez J.,Icvv Institute Ciencias Of La Vid Y Del Vino | Sanz M.,IDI Industrial Tonelera Navarra S.L. INTONA | Cadahia E.,Research Center Forestal | And 2 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

The wood-related volatile profile of wines aged in cherry, acacia, ash, chestnut and oak wood barrels was studied by GC-MS, and could be a useful tool to identify the wood specie used. Thus, 2,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde in wines aged in acacia barrels, and ethyl-2-benzoate in cherry barrels could be used as chemical markers of these wood species, for authenticity purposes. Also, the quantitative differences obtained in the volatile profiles allow a good classification of all wines regarding wood species of barrels, during all aging time, and they contributed with different intensities to aromatic and gustative characteristics of aged wines. Wines aged in oak were the best valuated during all aging time, but the differences were not always significant. The lowest scores were assigned to wines aged in cherry barrels from 6 months of aging, so this wood could be more suitable in short aging times. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Vazquez-de-la-Cueva A.,Research Center Forestal
Forest Systems | Year: 2014

Aim of study: Acacia dealbata is a naturalized tree of invasive behaviour that has expanded from small plots associated with vineyards into forest ecosystems. Our main objective is to find evidence to support the notion that disturbances, particularly forest fires, are important driving factors in the current expansion of A. dealbata. Area of study: We mapped it current distribution using three study areas and assesses the temporal changes registered in forest cover in these areas of the valley of the river Miño. Material and methods: The analyses were based on visual interpretation of aerial photographs taken in 1985 and 2003 of three 1 × 1 km study areas and field works. Main result: A 62.4%, 48.6% and 22.2% of the surface area was covered by A. dealbata in 2003 in pure or mixed stands. Furthermore, areas composed exclusively of A. dealbata make up 33.8%, 15.2% and 5.7% of the stands. The transition matrix analyses between the two dates support our hypothesis that the areas currently covered by A. dealbata make up a greater proportion of the forest area previously classified as unwooded or open forest than those without A. dealbata cover. Both of these surface types are the result of an important impact of fire in the region. Within each area, A. dealbata is mainly located on steeper terrain, which is more affected by fires. Research highlights: A. dealbata is becoming the dominant tree species over large areas and the invasion of this species gives rise to monospecific stands, which may have important implications for future fire regimes.

Sanz M.,IDI Industrial Tonelera Navarra S.L. INTONA | De Simon B.F.,Research Center Forestal | Cadahia E.,Research Center Forestal | Esteruelas E.,IDI Industrial Tonelera Navarra S.L. INTONA | And 3 more authors.
Analytica Chimica Acta | Year: 2012

Although oak wood is the main material used in cooperage, other species are being considered as possible sources of wood for the production of wines and their derived products. In this work we have compared the phenolic composition of acacia (. Robinia pseudoacacia), chestnut (. Castanea sativa), cherry (. Prunus avium) and ash (. Fraxinus excelsior and . F. americana) heartwoods, by using HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS/MS (some of these data have been showed in previous paper), as well as the changes that toasting intensity at cooperage produce in each polyphenolic profile. Before toasting, each wood shows a different and specific polyphenolic profile, with both qualitative and quantitative differences among them. Toasting notably changed these profiles, in general, proportionally to toasting intensity and led to a minor differentiation among species in toasted woods, although we also found phenolic markers in toasted woods. Thus, methyl syringate, benzoic acid, methyl vanillate, . p-hydroxybenzoic acid, 3,4,5-trimethylphenol and . p-coumaric acid, condensed tannins of the procyanidin type, and the flavonoids naringenin, aromadendrin, isosakuranetin and taxifolin will be a good tool to identify cherry wood. In acacia wood the chemical markers will be the aldehydes gallic and β-resorcylic and two not fully identified hydroxycinnamic compounds, condensed tannins of the prorobinetin type, and when using untoasted wood, dihydrorobinetin, and in toasted acacia wood, robinetin. In untoasted ash wood, the presence of secoiridoids, phenylethanoid glycosides, or di and oligolignols will be a good tool, especially oleuropein, ligstroside and olivil, together verbascoside and isoverbascoside in . F. excelsior, and oleoside in . F. americana. In toasted ash wood, tyrosol, syringaresinol, cyclolovil, verbascoside and olivil, could be used to identify the botanical origin. In addition, in ash wood, seasoned and toasted, neither hydrolysable nor condensed tannins were detected. Lastly, in chestnut wood, gallic and ellagic acids and hydrolysable tannins of both the gallotannin and ellagitannin type, can be used as chemical markers. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

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