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Von Kalckreuth V.,Korean International Vaccine Institute | Konings F.,Korean International Vaccine Institute | Aaby P.,Bandim Health Project | Adu-Sarkodie Y.,Kumasi Center for Collaborative Research in Tropical Medicine | And 35 more authors.
Clinical Infectious Diseases | Year: 2016

Background. New immunization programs are dependent on data from surveillance networks and disease burden estimates to prioritize target areas and risk groups. Data regarding invasive Salmonella disease in sub-Saharan Africa are currently limited, thus hindering the implementation of preventive measures. The Typhoid Fever Surveillance in Africa Program (TSAP) was established by the International Vaccine Institute to obtain comparable incidence data on typhoid fever and invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease in sub-Saharan Africa through standardized surveillance in multiple countries. Methods. Standardized procedures were developed and deployed across sites for study site selection, patient enrolment, laboratory procedures, quality control and quality assurance, assessment of healthcare utilization and incidence calculations. Results. Passive surveillance for bloodstream infections among febrile patients was initiated at thirteen sentinel sites in ten countries (Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Madagascar, Senegal, South Africa, Sudan, and Tanzania). Each TSAP site conducted case detection using these standardized methods to isolate and identify aerobic bacteria from the bloodstream of febrile patients. Healthcare utilization surveys were conducted to adjust population denominators in incidence calculations for differing healthcare utilization patterns and improve comparability of incidence rates across sites. Conclusions. By providing standardized data on the incidence of typhoid fever and iNTS disease in sub-Saharan Africa, TSAP will provide vital input for targeted typhoid fever prevention programs. © 2016 The Author.


Al-Emran H.M.,Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine | Krumkamp R.,Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine | Dekker D.M.,Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine | Eibach D.,Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine | And 38 more authors.
Clinical Infectious Diseases | Year: 2016

Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) cause the majority of bloodstream infections in sub-Saharan Africa; however, serotyping is rarely performed. We validated a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay with the White-Kauffmann-Le Minor (WKLM) scheme of serotyping using 110 Salmonella isolates from blood cultures of febrile children in Ghana and applied the method in other Typhoid Fever Surveillance in Africa Program study sites. In Ghana, 47 (43%) S. Typhi, 36 (33%) Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, 14 (13%) Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin, and 13 (12%) Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis were identified by both multiplex PCR and the WKLM scheme separately. Using the validated multiplex PCR assay, we identified 42 (66%) S. Typhi, 14 (22%) S. Typhimurium, 2 (3%) S. Dublin, 2 (3%) S. Enteritidis, and 4 (6%) other Salmonella species from the febrile patients in Burkina Faso, Guinea-Bissau, Madagascar, Senegal, and Tanzania. Application of this multiplex PCR assay in sub-Saharan Africa could advance the knowledge of serotype distribution of Salmonella. © 2016 The Author.


Mutua M.K.,African Population and Health Research Center | Mutua M.K.,Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology | Kimani-Murage E.,African Population and Health Research Center | Kimani-Murage E.,Brown University | And 7 more authors.
Tropical Medicine and Health | Year: 2016

Background: More efforts have been put in place to increase full immunization coverage rates in the last decade. Little is known about the levels and consequences of delaying or vaccinating children in different schedules. Vaccine effectiveness depends on the timing of its administration, and it is not optimal if given early, delayed or not given as recommended. Evidence of non-specific effects of vaccines is well documented and could be linked to timing and sequencing of immunization. This paper documents the levels of coverage, timing and sequencing of routine childhood vaccines. Methods: The study was conducted between 2007 and 2014 in two informal urban settlements in Nairobi. A total of 3856 children, aged 12-23 months and having a vaccination card seen were included in analysis. Vaccination dates recorded from the cards seen were used to define full immunization coverage, timeliness and sequencing. Proportions, medians and Kaplan-Meier curves were used to assess and describe the levels of full immunization coverage, vaccination delays and sequencing. Results: The findings indicate that 67 % of the children were fully immunized by 12 months of age. Missing measles and third doses of polio and pentavalent vaccine were the main reason for not being fully immunized. Delays were highest for third doses of polio and pentavalent and measles. About 22 % of fully immunized children had vaccines in an out-of-sequence manner with 18 % not receiving pentavalent together with polio vaccine as recommended. Conclusions: Results show higher levels of missed opportunities and low coverage of routine childhood vaccinations given at later ages. New strategies are needed to enable health care providers and parents/guardians to work together to increase the levels of completion of all required vaccinations. In particular, more focus is needed on vaccines given in multiple doses (polio, pentavalent and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines). © 2016 Mutua et al.


Mutua M.K.,African Population and Health Research Center | Mutua M.K.,Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology | Ochako R.,Population Services Kenya | Ettarh R.,University of British Columbia | And 5 more authors.
BMC Pediatrics | Year: 2015

Background: The World Health Organization recommends Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination against tuberculosis be given at birth. However, in many developing countries, pre-term and low birth weight infants get vaccinated only after they gain the desired weight. In Kenya, the ministry of health recommends pre-term and low birth weight infants to be immunized at the time of discharge from hospital irrespective of their weight. This paper seeks to understand the effects of birth weight on timing of BCG vaccine. Methods: The study was conducted in two Nairobi urban informal settlements, Korogocho and Viwandani which hosts the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance system. All infants born in the study area since September 2006 were included in the study. Data on immunization history and birth weight of the infant were recorded from child's clinic card. Follow up visits were done every four months to update immunization status of the child. A total of 3,602 infants were included in this analysis. Log normal accelerated failure time parametric model was used to assess the association between low birth weight infants and time to BCG immunization. Results: In total, 229 (6.4%) infants were low birth weight. About 16.6% of the low birth weight infants weighed less than 2000 grams and 83.4% weighed between 2000 and 2490 grams. Results showed that, 60% of the low birth weight infants received BCG vaccine after more than five weeks of life. Private health facilities were less likely to administer a BCG vaccine on time compared to public health facilities. The effects of low birth weight on females was 0.60 and 0.97-times that of males for infants weighing 2000-2499 grams and for infants weighing <2000 grams respectively. The effect of low birth weight among infants born in public health facilities was 1.52 and 3.94-times that of infants delivered in private health facilities for infants weighing 2000-2499 grams and those weighing < 2000 grams respectively. Conclusion: Low birth weight infants received BCG immunization late compared to normal birth weight infants. Low birth weight infants delivered in public health facilities were more likely to be immunized much later compared to private health facilities. © Mutua et al.; licensee BioMed Central.


PubMed | Research Center for Vitamins and Vaccines, Population Services Kenya, Kenya Medical Research Institute, African Population and Health Research Center and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: BMC pediatrics | Year: 2015

The World Health Organization recommends Bacillus Calmette-Gurin (BCG) vaccination against tuberculosis be given at birth. However, in many developing countries, pre-term and low birth weight infants get vaccinated only after they gain the desired weight. In Kenya, the ministry of health recommends pre-term and low birth weight infants to be immunized at the time of discharge from hospital irrespective of their weight. This paper seeks to understand the effects of birth weight on timing of BCG vaccine.The study was conducted in two Nairobi urban informal settlements, Korogocho and Viwandani which hosts the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance system. All infants born in the study area since September 2006 were included in the study. Data on immunization history and birth weight of the infant were recorded from childs clinic card. Follow up visits were done every four months to update immunization status of the child. A total of 3,602 infants were included in this analysis. Log normal accelerated failure time parametric model was used to assess the association between low birth weight infants and time to BCG immunization.In total, 229 (6.4%) infants were low birth weight. About 16.6% of the low birth weight infants weighed less than 2000 grams and 83.4% weighed between 2000 and 2490 grams. Results showed that, 60% of the low birth weight infants received BCG vaccine after more than five weeks of life. Private health facilities were less likely to administer a BCG vaccine on time compared to public health facilities. The effects of low birth weight on females was 0.60 and 0.97-times that of males for infants weighing 2000-2499 grams and for infants weighing <2000 grams respectively. The effect of low birth weight among infants born in public health facilities was 1.52 and 3.94-times that of infants delivered in private health facilities for infants weighing 2000-2499 grams and those weighing < 2000 grams respectively.Low birth weight infants received BCG immunization late compared to normal birth weight infants. Low birth weight infants delivered in public health facilities were more likely to be immunized much later compared to private health facilities.


Benn C.S.,Research Center for Vitamins and Vaccines | Benn C.S.,University of Southern Denmark | Fisker A.B.,Research Center for Vitamins and Vaccines | Diness B.R.,Research Center for Vitamins and Vaccines | And 3 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2014

Background: In Guinea-Bissau we conducted three trials of neonatal vitamin A supplementation (NVAS) from 2002 to 2008. None of the trials found a beneficial effect on mortality. From 2003 to 2007, an early measles vaccine (MV) trial was ongoing, randomizing children 1:2 to early MV at 4.5 months or no early MV, in addition to the usual MV at 9 months. We have previously found interactions between vitamin A and vaccines. Objective: We investigated whether there were interactions between NVAS and early MV. Design: We compared the mortality of NVAS and placebo recipients: first, from 4.5 to 8 months for children randomized to early MV or no early MV; and second, from 9 to 17 months in children who had received two MV or one MV. Mortality rates (MR) were compared in Cox models producing mortality rate ratios (MRR). Results: A total of 5141 children were randomized to NVAS (N= 3015) or placebo (N= 2126) and were later randomized to early MV (N= 1700) or no early MV (N= 3441). Between 4.5 and 8 months, NVAS compared with placebo was associated with higher mortality in early MV recipients (MR = 30 versus MR = 0, p= 0.01), but not in children who did not receive early MV (p for interaction between NVAS and early MV = 0.03). From 9 to 17 months NVAS was not associated with mortality. Overall, from 4.5 to 17 months NVAS was associated with increased mortality in early MV recipients (Mortality rate ratio = 5.39 (95% confidence interval: 1.62, 17.99)). Conclusions: These observations indicate that NVAS may interact with vaccines given several months later. This may have implications for the planning of future child intervention programs. © 2014 The Authors.


PubMed | Research Center for Vitamins and Vaccines, University of Southern Denmark and London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Vaccine | Year: 2014

In Guinea-Bissau we conducted three trials of neonatal vitamin A supplementation (NVAS) from 2002 to 2008. None of the trials found a beneficial effect on mortality. From 2003 to 2007, an early measles vaccine (MV) trial was ongoing, randomizing children 1:2 to early MV at 4.5 months or no early MV, in addition to the usual MV at 9 months. We have previously found interactions between vitamin A and vaccines.We investigated whether there were interactions between NVAS and early MV.We compared the mortality of NVAS and placebo recipients: first, from 4.5 to 8 months for children randomized to early MV or no early MV; and second, from 9 to 17 months in children who had received two MV or one MV. Mortality rates (MR) were compared in Cox models producing mortality rate ratios (MRR).A total of 5141 children were randomized to NVAS (N=3015) or placebo (N=2126) and were later randomized to early MV (N=1700) or no early MV (N=3441). Between 4.5 and 8 months, NVAS compared with placebo was associated with higher mortality in early MV recipients (MR=30 versus MR=0, p=0.01), but not in children who did not receive early MV (p for interaction between NVAS and early MV=0.03). From 9 to 17 months NVAS was not associated with mortality. Overall, from 4.5 to 17 months NVAS was associated with increased mortality in early MV recipients (Mortality rate ratio=5.39 (95% confidence interval: 1.62, 17.99)).These observations indicate that NVAS may interact with vaccines given several months later. This may have implications for the planning of future child intervention programs.

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