Research Center for Toxic Compounds in the Environment

Kamenice, Czech Republic

Research Center for Toxic Compounds in the Environment

Kamenice, Czech Republic
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Pomati F.,Eawag - Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology | Nizzetto L.,Norwegian Institute for Water Research | Nizzetto L.,Research Center for Toxic Compounds in the Environment
Ecotoxicology | Year: 2013

We exposed replicated phytoplankton communities confined in semi-permeable membrane-based mesocosms to 0, 0.1, 1 and 10 μg L-1 triclosan (TCS) and placed them back in their original environment to investigate the occurrence of trans-generational responses at individual, population and community levels. TCS diffused out of mesocosms with a half-life of less than 8 h, so that only the parental generation was directly stressed. At the beginning of the experiment and after 7 days (approximately 2 generations) we analysed responses in the phytoplankton using scanning flow-cytometry. We acquired information on several individually expressed phenotypic traits, such as size, biovolume, pigment fluorescence and packaging, for thousands of individuals per replicated population and derived population and community aggregated traits. We found significant changes in community functioning (increased productivity in terms of biovolume and total fluorescence), with maximal effects at 1 μg L-1 TCS. We detected significant and dose-dependent responses on population traits, such as changes in abundance for several populations, increased average size and fluorescence of cells, and strong changes in within-population trait mean and variance (suggesting micro-evolutionary effects). We applied the Price equation approach to partition community effects (changes in biovolume or fluorescence) in their physiological and ecological components, and quantified the residual component (including also evolutionary responses). Our results suggested that evolutionary or inheritable phenotypic plasticity responses may represent a significant component of the total observed change following exposure and over relatively small temporal scales. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


PubMed | Research Center for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Mendel University in Brno and Norwegian Institute for Water Research
Type: | Journal: The Science of the total environment | Year: 2016

Soil contamination with PCBs and PAHs in adjacent forest plots, characterized by a distinct composition in tree species (spruce only, mixed and beech only), was analyzed to investigate the influence of ecosystem type on contaminant mobility in soil under very similar climate and exposure conditions. Physical-chemical properties and contaminant concentrations in litter (L), organic (F, H) and mineral (A, B) soil horizons were analyzed. Contaminant distribution in the soil core varied both in relation to forest type and contaminant group/properties. Contaminant mobility in soil was assessed by examining the ratios of total organic carbon (TOC)-standardized concentrations across soil horizons (Enrichment factors, EFTOC) and the relationship between EFTOC and the octanol-water equilibrium partitioning coefficient (KOW). Contaminant distribution appeared to be highly unsteady, with pedogenic/biogeochemical drivers controlling contaminant mobility in organic layers and leaching controlling accumulation in mineral layers. Lighter PCBs displayed higher mobility in all forest types primarily controlled by leaching and, to a minor extent, diffusion. Pedogenic processes controlling the formation of soil horizons were found to be crucial drivers of PAHs and heavier PCBs distribution. All contaminants appeared to be more mobile in the soil of the broadleaved plot, followed by mixed canopy and spruce forest. Increasing proportion of deciduous broadleaf species in the forest can thus lead to faster degradation or the faster leaching of PAHs and PCBs. The composition of humic substances was found to be a better descriptor of contaminant concentration than TOC.


Komprda J.,Research Center for Toxic Compounds in the Environment | Komprdova K.,Research Center for Toxic Compounds in the Environment | Sanka M.,Research Center for Toxic Compounds in the Environment | Mozny M.,Czech Hydrometeorological Institute | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2013

The subject of this study is the assessment of the influence of climate and land use change on the potential re-emission of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) from background and agricultural soils. A deterministic spatially and temporally explicit model of the air-surface exchange was created, fed with distributed data of soil and atmospheric concentrations from real measurements, and run under various scenarios of temperature and land use change for a case study area representative of central European conditions. To describe land use influence, some important features were implemented including effect of plowing, influence of land cover, temperature of soil, and seasonal changes of air layer stability. Results show that volatilization of pesticides from soil largely exceeded dry gas deposition in most of the area. Agricultural soils accounted for more than 90% of the total re-emissions both because of the generally higher soil fugacities (higher loads of chemicals and relatively low organic carbon content), but also due to physical characteristics and land management practices enhancing the dynamics of the exchange. An increase of 1 C in air temperature produced an increase of 8% in the averaged total volatilization flux, however this effect can be neutralized by a change of land use of 10% of the arable lands to grassland or forest, which is consistent with projected land use change in Europe. This suggests that future assessment of climate impact on POP fate and distribution should take into consideration land use aspects. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Schneider S.C.,Norwegian Institute for Water Research | Nizzetto L.,Norwegian Institute for Water Research | Nizzetto L.,Research Center for Toxic Compounds in the Environment
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2012

It has been hypothesized that highly hydrophobic substances (LogK OW > 5) including many persistent organic pollutants cannot overtake protective tissues and diffuse inside the body of plants due to steric hindrance or very slow diffusion. We investigated the bioaccumulation of hexachlorobenzene (HCB, LogKOW = 5.5) in a benthic charophycean macro-alga: Chara rudis. Chara species are a group of common freshwater algae with a complex body structure encompassing a protective layer of cortex cells surrounding large internode cells. The charophyte cell wall has many features in common with that of higher plants; therefore, they are useful models to investigate bioaccumulation mechanisms in general. We found that HCB diffused through the cortex and reached the cytoplam of internode cells. More than 90% of the HCB mass found in the organism was in the cortex and 10% in the internode cell cytoplasm. The cortex reached a pseudoequilibrium partitioning with water, and the bioconcentration factor was in the same range as that of lower aquatic organisms such as phytoplankton. Charophytes are therefore very efficient accumulators of hydrophobic compounds. Based on the structural and ecological features of charophytes, we speculated on their possible use as biomonitors and bioremediation tools. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Melymuk L.,Research Center for Toxic Compounds in the Environment | Bohlin-Nizzetto P.,Norwegian Institute For Air Research | Kukucka P.,Research Center for Toxic Compounds in the Environment | Vojta S.,Research Center for Toxic Compounds in the Environment | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2016

This study is a systematic assessment of different houses and apartments, their ages and renovation status, indoors and outdoors, and in summer vs. winter, with a goal of bringing some insight into the major sources of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and their variability. Indoor and outdoor air concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and novel flame retardants (NFRs) were determined at 17–20 homes in Czech Republic in winter and summer. Indoor concentrations were consistently higher than outdoor concentrations for all compounds; indoor/outdoor ratios ranged from 2–20, with larger differences for the current use NFRs than for legacy PCBs. Seasonal trends differed according to the use status of the compounds: the PCBs had higher summer concentrations both indoors and outdoors, suggesting volatilization as a source of PCBs to air. PBDEs had no seasonal trends indoors, but higher summer concentrations outdoors. Several NFRs (TBX, PBT, PBEB) had higher indoor concentrations in winter relative to summer. The seasonal trends in the flame retardants suggest differences in air exchange rates due to lower building ventilation in winter could be driving the concentration differences. Weak relationships were found with building age for PCBs, with higher concentrations indoors in buildings built before 1984, and with the number of electronics for PBDEs, with higher concentrations in rooms with three or more electronic items. Indoor environments are the primary contributor to human inhalation exposure to these SVOCs, due to the high percentage of time spent indoors (>90%) combined with the higher indoors levels for all the studied compounds. Exposure via the indoor environment contributed ∼96% of the total chronic daily intake via inhalation in summer and ∼98% in winter. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


PubMed | Research Center for Toxic Compounds in the Environment and Norwegian Institute For Air Research
Type: | Journal: Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) | Year: 2016

This study is a systematic assessment of different houses and apartments, their ages and renovation status, indoors and outdoors, and in summer vs. winter, with a goal of bringing some insight into the major sources of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and their variability. Indoor and outdoor air concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and novel flame retardants (NFRs) were determined at 17-20 homes in Czech Republic in winter and summer. Indoor concentrations were consistently higher than outdoor concentrations for all compounds; indoor/outdoor ratios ranged from 2-20, with larger differences for the current use NFRs than for legacy PCBs. Seasonal trends differed according to the use status of the compounds: the PCBs had higher summer concentrations both indoors and outdoors, suggesting volatilization as a source of PCBs to air. PBDEs had no seasonal trends indoors, but higher summer concentrations outdoors. Several NFRs (TBX, PBT, PBEB) had higher indoor concentrations in winter relative to summer. The seasonal trends in the flame retardants suggest differences in air exchange rates due to lower building ventilation in winter could be driving the concentration differences. Weak relationships were found with building age for PCBs, with higher concentrations indoors in buildings built before 1984, and with the number of electronics for PBDEs, with higher concentrations in rooms with three or more electronic items. Indoor environments are the primary contributor to human inhalation exposure to these SVOCs, due to the high percentage of time spent indoors (>90%) combined with the higher indoors levels for all the studied compounds. Exposure via the indoor environment contributed 96% of the total chronic daily intake via inhalation in summer and 98% in winter.


Becanova J.,Research Center for Toxic Compounds in the Environment | Komprdova K.,Research Center for Toxic Compounds in the Environment | Vrana B.,Research Center for Toxic Compounds in the Environment | Klanova J.,Research Center for Toxic Compounds in the Environment
Chemosphere | Year: 2016

Two groups of perfluorined compounds (PFCs), i.e. perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFASs) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) were analysed during a period of 1 year in monthly collected riverbed sediment samples from five sampling sites in an industrial region in Morava River catchment in Czech Republic. Levels of PFCs determined in sediment samples were up to 6.8 μg kg-1 of dry weight. Among PFCs analysed, mainly short-chain PFASs (C6 to C8) including PFOS were found in sediment samples and their levels were similar to those found in comparable river basins in other parts of Europe. Concentrations of PFCs were correlated with organic carbon content and their variations were mainly correlated by high flow events on Morava River and its tributaries. The changes in PFC concentrations were induced by displacing of PFCs containing particles to the river sediment during these elevated flow events. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


Necasova A.,Research Center for Toxic Compounds in the Environment | Banyiova K.,Research Center for Toxic Compounds in the Environment | Literak J.,Research Center for Toxic Compounds in the Environment | Cupr P.,Research Center for Toxic Compounds in the Environment
Environmental Toxicology | Year: 2016

Ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC) is a widely used UV filter present in a large number of personal care products (PCPs). Under normal conditions, EHMC occurs in a mixture of two isomers: trans-EHMC and cis-EHMC in a ratio of 99:1. When exposed to sunlight, the trans isomer is transformed to the less stable cis isomer and the efficiency of the UV filter is reduced. To date, the toxicological effects of the cis-EHMC isomer remain largely unknown. We developed a completely new method for preparing cis-EHMC. An EHMC technical mixture was irradiated using a UV lamp and 98% pure cis-EHMC was isolated from the irradiated solution using column chromatography. The genotoxic effects of the isolated cis-EHMC isomer and the nonirradiated trans-EHMC were subsequently measured using two bioassays (SOS chromotest and UmuC test). In the case of trans-EHMC, significant genotoxicity was observed using both bioassays at the highest concentrations (0.5 - 4 mg mL-1). In the case of cis-EHMC, significant genotoxicity was only detected using the UmuC test at concentrations of 0.25 - 1 mg mL-1. Based on these results, the NOEC was calculated for both cis- and trans-EHMC, 0.038 and 0.064 mg mL-1, respectively. Risk assessment of dermal, oral and inhalation exposure to PCPs containing EHMC was carried out for a female population using probabilistic simulation and by using Quantitative in vitro to in vivo extrapolation (QIVIVE). The risk of cis-EHMC was found to be ∼1.7 times greater than trans-EHMC. In the case of cis-EHMC, a hazard index of 1 was exceeded in the 92nd percentile. Based on the observed differences between the isomers, EHMC application in PCPs requires detailed reassessment. Further exploration of the toxicological effects and properties of cis-EHMC is needed in order to correctly predict risks posed to humans and the environment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


PubMed | Research Center for Toxic Compounds in the Environment
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Environmental science & technology | Year: 2013

The subject of this study is the assessment of the influence of climate and land use change on the potential re-emission of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) from background and agricultural soils. A deterministic spatially and temporally explicit model of the air-surface exchange was created, fed with distributed data of soil and atmospheric concentrations from real measurements, and run under various scenarios of temperature and land use change for a case study area representative of central European conditions. To describe land use influence, some important features were implemented including effect of plowing, influence of land cover, temperature of soil, and seasonal changes of air layer stability. Results show that volatilization of pesticides from soil largely exceeded dry gas deposition in most of the area. Agricultural soils accounted for more than 90% of the total re-emissions both because of the generally higher soil fugacities (higher loads of chemicals and relatively low organic carbon content), but also due to physical characteristics and land management practices enhancing the dynamics of the exchange. An increase of 1 C in air temperature produced an increase of 8% in the averaged total volatilization flux, however this effect can be neutralized by a change of land use of 10% of the arable lands to grassland or forest, which is consistent with projected land use change in Europe. This suggests that future assessment of climate impact on POP fate and distribution should take into consideration land use aspects.


PubMed | Research Center for Toxic Compounds in the Environment
Type: | Journal: Chemosphere | Year: 2016

Two groups of perfluorined compounds (PFCs), i.e. perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFASs) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) were analysed during a period of 1 year in monthly collected riverbed sediment samples from five sampling sites in an industrial region in Morava River catchment in Czech Republic. Levels of PFCs determined in sediment samples were up to 6.8gkg(-1) of dry weight. Among PFCs analysed, mainly short-chain PFASs (C6 to C8) including PFOS were found in sediment samples and their levels were similar to those found in comparable river basins in other parts of Europe. Concentrations of PFCs were correlated with organic carbon content and their variations were mainly correlated by high flow events on Morava River and its tributaries. The changes in PFC concentrations were induced by displacing of PFCs containing particles to the river sediment during these elevated flow events.

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