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Binolfi A.,CONICET | Fernandez C.O.,CONICET | Fernandez C.O.,Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry | Fernandez C.O.,Research Center for the Molecular Physiology of the Brain | And 4 more authors.
Proteins: Structure, Function and Bioinformatics

Thioredoxins (TRXs) constitute attractive α/β scaffolds for investigating molecular recognition. The interaction between the recombinant fragment spanning the sequence 1-93 of full-length TRX (TRX1-93) and the synthetic peptide comprising residues 94-108 (TRX94-108), plus a C-terminal tyrosine tag (the numbering scheme used in entry pdb 2TRX is used throughout the article, two complementary moieties of E. coli TRX, brings about the consolidation of a native-like complex. Despite its reduced thermodynamic stability, this complex is able to acquire fine structural features remarkably similar to those characteristic of full-length TRX, namely, hydrodynamic behavior, assessed by diffusion-ordered spectroscopy (DOSY)-NMR; the pattern of secondary structure, as revealed by three-bond HNHα coupling constants and secondary shifts for Hα/CO/Cα/Cβ; native-like tertiary structural signatures revealed by near-UV circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. The complex exhibits a relaxation behavior compatible with that expected for a native-like structure. However, heteronuclear nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE)s reveal an enhanced dynamics for the complex by comparison with full-length TRX. Furthermore, higher R2 values for residues 43-50 and 74-89 would likely result from an exchange process modulated by the peptide at the interface region. The slow kinetics of the consolidation reaction was followed by CD and real-time NMR. Equilibrium titration experiments by NMR yield a KD value of 1.4 ± 1.0 μM and a second low-affinity (>150 μM) binding event in the vicinity of the active site. Molecular dynamics simulations of both the isolated fragment TRX1-93 and the complex suggest the destabilization of α2 and α3 helical elements and the persistence of β-structure in the absence of TRX94-108. Altogether, structural and dynamic evidence presented herein points to the key role played by the C-terminal helix in establishing the overall fold. This critical switch module endows reduced TRX with the ability to act as a cooperative folding unit. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Doeppner T.R.,University of Duisburg - Essen | Doeppner T.R.,University of Gottingen | Doehring M.,University of Gottingen | Bretschneider E.,University of Gottingen | And 8 more authors.
Acta Neuropathologica

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are highly conserved non-coding RNAs modulating gene expression via mRNA binding. Recent work suggests an involvement of miRNAs in cardiovascular diseases including stroke. As such, the brain-abundant miR-124 and its transcriptional repressor RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST) do not only have elementary roles in the developing and the adult brain, but also alter expression upon cerebral ischemia. However, the therapeutic potential of miR-124 against stroke and the mechanisms involved remain elusive. Here, we analyzed the therapeutic potential of ectopic miR-124 against stroke and its underlying mechanisms with regard to the interaction between miR-124 and REST. Our results show that viral vector-mediated miR-124 delivery increased the resistance of cultured oxygen-glucose-deprived cortical neurons in vitro and reduced brain injury as well as functional impairment in mice submitted to middle cerebral artery occlusion. Likewise, miR-124 induced enhanced neurovascular remodeling leading to increased angioneurogenesis 8 weeks post-stroke. While REST abundance increased upon stroke, the increase was prevented by miR-124 despite a so far unknown negative feedback loop between miR-124 and REST. Rather, miR-124 decreased the expression of the deubiquitinating enzyme Usp14, which has two conserved miR-124-binding sites in the 3′UTR of its mRNA, and thereby mediated reduced REST levels. The down-regulation of REST by miR-124 was also mimicked by the Usp14 inhibitor IU-1, suggesting that miR-124 promotes neuronal survival under ischemic conditions via Usp14-dependent REST degradation. Ectopic miR-124 expression, therefore, appears as an attractive and novel tool in stroke treatment, mediating neuroprotection via a hitherto unknown mechanism that involves Usp14-dependent REST degradation. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Cho M.-K.,Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry | Kim H.-Y.,Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry | Fernandez C.O.,National University of Rosario | Becker S.,Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry | And 2 more authors.
Protein Science

The major component of neural inclusions that are the pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease are amyloid fibrils of the protein α-synuclein (aS). Here we investigated if the disease-related mutation A30P not only modulates the kinetics of aS aggregation, but also alters the structure of amyloid fibrils. To this end we optimized the method of quenched hydrogen/deuterium exchange coupled to NMR spectroscopy and performed two-dimensional proton-detected highresolution magic angle spinning experiments. The combined data indicate that the A30P mutation does not cause changes in the number, location and overall arrangement of β-strands in amyloid fibrils of aS. At the same time, several residues within the fibrillar core retain nano-second dynamics. We conclude that the increased pathogenicity related to the familial A30P mutation is unlikely to be caused by a mutation-induced change in the conformation of aS aggregates. Published by Wiley-Blackwell. © 2010 The Protein Society. Source

Rezaei-Ghaleh N.,Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry | Andreetto E.,TU Munich | Yan L.-M.,TU Munich | Kapurniotu A.,TU Munich | And 2 more authors.

Assembly of amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ) into cytotoxic oligomeric and fibrillar aggregates is believed to be a major pathologic event in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and interfering with Aβ aggregation is an important strategy in the development of novel therapeutic approaches. Prior studies have shown that the double N-methylated analogue of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) IAPP-GI, which is a conformationally constrained IAPP analogue mimicking a non-amyloidogenic IAPP conformation, is capable of blocking cytotoxic self-assembly of Aβ. Here we investigate the interaction of IAPP-GI with Aβ40 and Aβ42 using NMR spectroscopy. The most pronounced NMR chemical shift changes were observed for residues 13-20, while residues 7-9, 15-16 as well as the C-terminal half of Aβ - that is both regions of the Aβ sequence that are converted into β-strands in amyloid fibrils - were less accessible to solvent in the presence of IAPP-GI. At the same time, interaction of IAPP-GI with Aβ resulted in a concentration-dependent co-aggregation of Aβ and IAPP-GI that was enhanced for the more aggregation prone Aβ42 peptide. On the basis of the reduced toxicity of the Aβ peptide in the presence of IAPP-GI, our data are consistent with the suggestion that IAPP-GI redirects Aβ into nontoxic "off-pathway" aggregates. © 2011 Rezaei-Ghaleh et al. Source

Doeppner T.R.,University of Duisburg - Essen | Kaltwasser B.,University of Duisburg - Essen | Elali A.,University of Duisburg - Essen | Zechariah A.,University of Duisburg - Essen | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism

Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is an interesting candidate for acute stroke treatment as shown by continuous infusion or gene delivery protocols. However, little is known about HGF-mediated long-term effects. The present study therefore analyzed long-term effects of an acute intrastriatal HGF treatment (5 g) after a 45-minute stroke, with regard to brain injury and neurologic recovery. Hepatocyte growth factor induced long-term neuroprotection as assessed by infarct volume and neuronal cell death analysis for as long as 4 weeks after stroke, which was associated with sustained neurologic recovery as evidenced by corner-turn and tight-rope tests. Analyzing underlying mechanisms of HGF-induced sustained neuroprotection, enhanced cell proliferation followed by increased neuronal differentiation of neural precursor cells (NPCs) was observed in the ischemic striatum of HGF-treated mice, which persisted for up to 4 weeks. In line with this, HGF promoted neurosphere formation as well as proliferation of NPC and decreased caspase-3-dependent hypoxic injury in vitro. Preservation of blood-brain barrier integrity 24 hours after stroke was furthermore noticed in animals receiving HGF, which was associated with the inhibition of matrix metalloproteases (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 at 4 and 24 hours, respectively. We suggest that sustained recruitment of proliferating cells together with improved neurovascular remodeling provides an explanation for HGF-induced long-term neuroprotection. © 2011 ISCBFM All rights reserved. Source

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