Research Center for Sport and Health science

Jyväskylä, Finland

Research Center for Sport and Health science

Jyväskylä, Finland

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Telama R.,University of Jyväskylä | Yang X.,Research Center for Sport and Health science | Leskinen E.,University of Jyväskylä | Kankaanpaa A.,Research Center for Sport and Health science | And 4 more authors.
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise | Year: 2014

PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to investigate the tracking of physical activity (PA) from preschool age to adulthood in six age cohorts of males and females. METHODS: A random sample of 3596 boys and girls age 3-18 yr participated in the Cardiovascular Risks in Young Finns Study in 1980. The follow-up measurements were repeated in 1986, 1992, 2001, and 2007. The PA was measured by mother's report in 3-and 6-yr-olds and self-report in 9-yr-olds and older. Tracking of PA was analyzed using the Spearman rank-order correlation and a simplex model. RESULTS: Mother-reported PA at age 3 and 6 yr significantly predicted self-reported PA in youth and in young adulthood, and there was a significant indirect effect of mother report on adult PA 2007 in males. Simplex models that fitted the data very well produced higher stability coefficients than the Spearman rank-order correlations showing moderate or high tracking. The tracking was higher in males than that in females. CONCLUSION: This study has shown that physically active lifestyle starts to develop very early in childhood and that the stability of PA is moderate or high along the life course from youth to adulthood. © 2014 by the American college of Sports Medicine.

Yang X.,Research Center for Sport and Health science | Telama R.,Research Center for Sport and Health science | Telama R.,University of Jyväskylä | Hirvensalo M.,University of Jyväskylä | And 3 more authors.
Preventive Medicine | Year: 2014

Objective: The aims of the study were to describe the stability of active commuting (AC) behavior (i.e., walking and cycling) over 27. years and examine the relationship between AC and physical activity (PA) from youth to early midlife. Methods: The mode and distance of travel were assessed using a self-reported questionnaire at five consecutive measurements between 1980 and 2007, when 2072 individuals were followed up from youth (9-18. years) to adulthood (30-45. years). PA was also measured using a questionnaire. Results: The prevalence of AC declined sharply with age, particularly after 12. years, while AC distances to work or place of study increased substantially. AC was concurrently and prospectively associated with PA in both men and women. Maintained AC, whether walking or cycling and short or long distances, positively predicted adult PA over time. Compared with persistently passive commuters, persistently active commuters had higher adult PA after adjustment for potential covariates. Increasing AC was independently associated with high adult PA, particularly in young adulthood. Conclusions: Walking and cycling to school/work should be encouraged, as regular AC is associated with higher levels of PA over 27. years of follow-up, and thus, may contribute to a healthy and active lifestyle through the various stages of life-course. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Shiri R.,Finnish Institute of Occupational Health | Solovieva S.,Finnish Institute of Occupational Health | Husgafvel-Pursiainen K.,Finnish Institute of Occupational Health | Telama R.,University of Jyväskylä | And 4 more authors.
Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism | Year: 2013

Objective: To study the effects of obesity, physical activity, and change in physical activity on the incidence of low back pain and explore whether obesity modifies the effects of physical activity. Methods: As part of the ongoing Young Finns Study, 1224 subjects aged 24-39 years free from low back pain during the preceding 12 months at baseline in 2001 were included. Obesity was defined based on the body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference, and physical activity was assessed by the metabolic equivalent of task (MET) index in 2001 and 2007. Results: Abdominal obesity, defined by an increased waist circumference, was associated with an increased incidence of radiating low back pain (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.7 and 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-2.7), while it had no effect on non-specific low back pain. BMI was associated neither with the incidence of radiating low back pain nor with non-specific low back pain. Compared with subjects who stayed active during follow-up, those with a low level of physical activity (adjusted OR = 2.0 and 95% CI 1.1-3.5) and active subjects who further increased their physical activity during follow-up (OR = 3.1 and 95% CI 1.5-6.7) had a higher incidence of radiating low back pain. Low level of physical activity was associated with an increased incidence of radiating low back pain in obese (OR = 3.3 and 95% 1.1-10.4), but not in non-overweight subjects (OR = 1.1 and 95% CI 0.6-1.9). Physical activity was not associated with non-specific low back pain. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that both obesity and low level of physical activity are independent risk factors of radiating low back pain. The current findings propose a U-shaped relation between physical activity and radiating low back pain. Moderate level of physical activity is recommended for the prevention of low back pain, especially in obese individuals. In all, our findings imply that obese individuals should stay physically active, even if they may not lose weight. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Syvaoja H.J.,Research Center for Sport and Health science | Syvaoja H.J.,University of Jyväskylä | Kantomaa M.T.,Research Center for Sport and Health science | Kantomaa M.T.,Imperial College London | And 4 more authors.
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise | Year: 2013

PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine the relationships between objectively measured and self-reported physical activity, sedentary behavior, and academic performance in Finnish children. METHODS: Two hundred and seventy-seven children from five schools in the Jyväskylä school district in Finland (58% of the 475 eligible students, mean age = 12.2 yr, 56% girls) participated in the study in the spring of 2011. Self-reported physical activity and screen time were evaluated with questions used in the WHO Health Behavior in School-Aged Children study. Children's physical activity and sedentary time were measured objectively by using an ActiGraph GT1M/GT3X accelerometer for seven consecutive days. A cutoff value of 2296 counts per minute was used for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and 100 counts per minute for sedentary time. Grade point averages were provided by the education services of the city of Jyväskylä. ANOVA and linear regression analysis were used to analyze the relationships among physical activity, sedentary behavior, and academic performance. RESULTS: Objectively measured MVPA (P = 0.955) and sedentary time (P = 0.285) were not associated with grade point average. However, self-reported MVPA had an inverse U-shaped curvilinear association with grade point average (P = 0.001), and screen time had a linear negative association with grade point average (P = 0.002), after adjusting for sex, children's learning difficulties, highest level of parental education, and amount of sleep. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, self-reported physical activity was directly, and screen time inversely, associated with academic achievement. Objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time were not associated with academic achievement. Objective and subjective measures may reflect different constructs and contexts of physical activity and sedentary behavior in association with academic outcomes. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Sports Medicine.

Hulmi J.J.,University of Jyväskylä | Silvennoinen M.,University of Jyväskylä | Lehti M.,Research Center for Sport and Health science | Kivela R.,University of Jyväskylä | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2012

Type 1 diabetes, if poorly controlled, leads to skeletal muscle atrophy, decreasing the quality of life. We aimed to search highly responsive genes in diabetic muscle atrophy in a common diabetes model and to further characterize associated signaling pathways. Mice were killed 1, 3, or 5 wk after streptozotocin or control. Gene expression of calf muscles was analyzed using microarray and protein signaling with Western blotting. We identified translational repressor protein REDD1 (regulated in development and DNA damage responses) that increased seven- to eightfold and was associated with muscle atrophy in diabetes. The diabetes-induced increase in REDD1 was confirmed at the protein level. This result was accompanied by the increased gene expression of DNA damage/repair pathways and decreased expression in ATP production pathways. Concomitantly, increased phosphorylation of AMPK and dephosphorylation of the Akt/mTOR/S6K1/FoxO pathway of proteins were observed together with increased protein ubiquitination. These changes were especially evident during the first 3 wk, along with the strong decrease in muscle mass. Diabetes also induced an increase in myostatin protein and decreased MAPK signaling. These, together with decreased serum insulin and increased serum glucose, remained altered throughout the 5-wk period. In conclusion, diabetic myopathy induced by streptozotocin led to alteration of multiple signaling pathways. Of those, increased REDD1 and myostatin together with decreased Akt/mTOR/FoxO signaling are associated with diabetic muscle atrophy. The increased REDD1 and decreased Akt/mTOR/FoxO signaling followed a similar time course and thus may be explained, in part, by increased expression of genes in DNA damage/repair and possibly also decrease in ATP-production pathways. © 2012 the American Physiological Society.

Koivukangas J.,University of Oulu | Tammelin T.,Research Center for Sport and Health science | Tammelin T.,Finnish Institute of Occupational Health | Kaakinen M.,University of Oulu | And 4 more authors.
Schizophrenia Research | Year: 2010

Background: Literature regarding physical activity and fitness among subjects at risk for psychosis especially in adolescents is scarce. This study evaluated the level of physical activity and cardio-respiratory fitness among subjects at risk for psychosis in a relatively large birth cohort sample. Methods: The study population consisted of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 including 6987 adolescents who self-reported their physical activity by responding to a postal inquiry in 2001-2002 at the age of 15-16 years. Their cardiorespiratory fitness was measured in a clinical examination by a submaximal cycle ergometer test. Vulnerability to psychosis was defined in three ways: having a parent with a history of psychosis, having prodromal symptoms of psychosis measured by PROD-screen questionnaire at the age of 15-16 years or having actually developed psychosis after the field study (in 2002-2005). The Finnish Hospital Discharge Register was used to find out about parental and the individual's own psychosis. Results: Those individuals who developed psychosis were more likely to be physically inactive (OR 3.3; CI 95% (1.4-7.9) adjusted for gender, parental socio-economic status, family structure and parents' physical activity) and to have poor cardiorespiratory fitness (OR 2.2; 95% CI 0.6-7.8 adjusted for parental socio-economic status, family structure and parents' physical activity) compared to those who did not develop psychosis. Conclusions: Adolescents who would actually develop psychosis had a relatively low level of physical activity compared to their age mates. General recommendations for physical activity would be important for subjects at risk for developing psychosis in order to avoid detrimental effect of physical inactivity on overall health. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Kangasniemi A.M.,Research Center for Sport and Health science | Kangasniemi A.M.,University of Jyväskylä | Lappalainen R.,University of Jyväskylä | Kankaanpaa A.,Research Center for Sport and Health science | And 2 more authors.
BMC Public Health | Year: 2015

Background: The high prevalence of physical inactivity has led to a search for novel and feasible interventions that will enhance physical activity, especially among the least physically active individuals. This randomized controlled trial aimed to determine the effectiveness of a value-based intervention to promote a physically more active lifestyle among physically inactive adults. The framework of the study was based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). Methods: Physically inactive participants aged 30 to 50 years (n∈=∈138) were randomly allocated to a feedback (FB, n∈=∈69) or an acceptance- and commitment-based group (ACT∈+∈FB, n∈=∈69). Both groups received written feedback about their objectively measured physical activity and were offered a body composition analysis. In addition, the participants in the ACT∈+∈FB group attended six group sessions and were given a pedometer for self-monitoring their physical activity during the nine-week intervention. The primary outcome was physical activity. In addition, participants' cognitions related to exercise and physical activity were evaluated at baseline and at three- and six-month follow-ups. The changes in mean physical activity level were analysed using multilevel random regression and rank order stability, using the structural equation model. Results: Participants in both groups increased their objectively measured and self-reported physical activity with high individual differences. No difference was observed in the change of physical activity level between the FB and ACT∈+∈FB groups over time. However, the cognitions related to physical activity and exercise improved more in the ACT∈+∈FB group than in the FB group. In addition, after re-analyzing the data among the non-depressive participants, higher stability was observed in objectively measured physical activity at the individual level between the three- and six-month follow-ups in the ACT∈+∈FB group as compared to FB group. Conclusions: Acceptance- and commitment-based group intervention, combined with the self-monitoring of physical activity, was beneficial in supporting the cognition related to exercise and physical activity, and brought more stability to the individual level physical activity behaviour change, especially among the non-depressive participants. Trial registration:, number NCT01796990. Registered in February 2013. © 2015 Kangasniemi et al.; licensee BioMed Central.

Multanen J.,University of Jyväskylä | Nieminen M.T.,University of Oulu | Hakkinen A.,University of Jyväskylä | Hakkinen A.,Central Finland Central Hospital | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Bone and Mineral Research | Year: 2014

Osteoarthritis and osteoporosis often coexist in postmenopausal women. The simultaneous effect of bone-favorable high-impact training on these diseases is not well understood and is a topic of controversy. We evaluated the effects of high-impact exercise on bone mineral content (BMC) and the estimated biochemical composition of knee cartilage in postmenopausal women with mild knee osteoarthritis. Eighty women aged 50 to 66 years with mild knee osteoarthritis were randomly assigned to undergo supervised progressive exercise three times a week for 12 months (n = 40) or to a nonintervention control group (n = 40). BMC of the femoral neck, trochanter, and lumbar spine was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The biochemical composition of cartilage was estimated using delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) cartilage (dGEMRIC), sensitive to cartilage glycosaminoglycan content, and transverse relaxation time (T2) mapping that is sensitive to the properties of the collagen network. In addition, we evaluated clinically important symptoms and physical performance-related risk factors of falling: cardiorespiratory fitness, dynamic balance, maximal isometric knee extension and flexion forces, and leg power. Thirty-six trainees and 40 controls completed the study. The mean gain in femoral neck BMC in the exercise group was 0.6% (95% CI, -0.2% to 1.4%) and the mean loss in the control group was -1.2% (95% CI, -2.1% to -0.4%). The change in baseline, body mass, and adjusted body mass change in BMC between the groups was significant (p = 0.005), whereas no changes occurred in the biochemical composition of the cartilage, as investigated by MRI. Balance, muscle force, and cardiorespiratory fitness improved significantly more (3% to 11%) in the exercise group than in the control group. Progressively implemented high-impact training, which increased bone mass, did not affect the biochemical composition of cartilage and may be feasible in the prevention of osteoporosis and physical performance-related risk factors of falling in postmenopausal women. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

Kantomaa M.T.,University of Oulu | Tammelin T.H.,Finnish Institute of Occupational Health | Tammelin T.H.,Research Center for Sport and Health science | Demakakos P.,University College London | And 2 more authors.
Health Education Research | Year: 2010

This study examined whether physical activity, mental health and socio-economic position were associated with the overall academic performance and future educational plans of adolescents aged 15-16 years. We used a sample of 7002 boys and girls from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. Data were collected by a postal enquiry in 2001-02. Multivariable logistic regression models were estimated and adjusted for family structure and all variables in the models. In the fully adjusted models, higher levels of physical activity and high parental socio-economic position were associated with higher overall academic performance and future plans for higher education. High scoring on behavioural problems was related to lower overall academic performance and poorer future academic plans. In summary, a higher level of physical activity, fewer behavioural problems and higher socio-economic position were independently associated with high self-perceived overall academic performance and plans for higher education among adolescents. The interrelations of these factors and the positive relationship between physical activity, mental health and school outcomes provide a context of critical importance for future research, intervention programming and policy directed at improving the educational attainment of adolescents. © The Author 2008. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

Kangasniemi A.,Research Center for Sport and Health science | Kangasniemi A.,University of Jyväskylä | Lappalainen R.,University of Jyväskylä | Kankaanpaa A.,Research Center for Sport and Health science | Tammelin T.,Research Center for Sport and Health science
Mental Health and Physical Activity | Year: 2014

Mindfulness skills, psychological flexibility and psychological symptoms were compared among 58 physically less active and 50 physically active adults who were recruited and classified based on their self-reported physical activity. Additionally, this study evaluated the association of objectively measured physical activity with psychological variables. Methods Participants completed questionnaires evaluating their mindfulness skills and psychological flexibility as well as their psychological and depressive symptoms. Physical activity was assessed objectively using an accelerometer for seven consecutive days. Results Based on the self-reported physical activity levels physically active individuals had better mindfulness skills and less psychological and depressive symptoms compared to physically less active adults. A consistent correlation was observed between objectively measured physical activity and psychological well-being. Conclusions This study support the view that physically active adults had better psychological well-being compared to physically less active adults. These results also suggest that a physically active lifestyle is related to better mindfulness skills and having less psychological and depressive symptoms. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

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