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Shiri R.,Finnish Institute of Occupational Health | Solovieva S.,Finnish Institute of Occupational Health | Husgafvel-Pursiainen K.,Finnish Institute of Occupational Health | Telama R.,University of Jyvaskyla | And 4 more authors.
Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism | Year: 2013

Objective: To study the effects of obesity, physical activity, and change in physical activity on the incidence of low back pain and explore whether obesity modifies the effects of physical activity. Methods: As part of the ongoing Young Finns Study, 1224 subjects aged 24-39 years free from low back pain during the preceding 12 months at baseline in 2001 were included. Obesity was defined based on the body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference, and physical activity was assessed by the metabolic equivalent of task (MET) index in 2001 and 2007. Results: Abdominal obesity, defined by an increased waist circumference, was associated with an increased incidence of radiating low back pain (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.7 and 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-2.7), while it had no effect on non-specific low back pain. BMI was associated neither with the incidence of radiating low back pain nor with non-specific low back pain. Compared with subjects who stayed active during follow-up, those with a low level of physical activity (adjusted OR = 2.0 and 95% CI 1.1-3.5) and active subjects who further increased their physical activity during follow-up (OR = 3.1 and 95% CI 1.5-6.7) had a higher incidence of radiating low back pain. Low level of physical activity was associated with an increased incidence of radiating low back pain in obese (OR = 3.3 and 95% 1.1-10.4), but not in non-overweight subjects (OR = 1.1 and 95% CI 0.6-1.9). Physical activity was not associated with non-specific low back pain. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that both obesity and low level of physical activity are independent risk factors of radiating low back pain. The current findings propose a U-shaped relation between physical activity and radiating low back pain. Moderate level of physical activity is recommended for the prevention of low back pain, especially in obese individuals. In all, our findings imply that obese individuals should stay physically active, even if they may not lose weight. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Hulmi J.J.,University of Jyvaskyla | Silvennoinen M.,University of Jyvaskyla | Lehti M.,Research Center for Sport and Health science | Kivela R.,University of Jyvaskyla | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2012

Type 1 diabetes, if poorly controlled, leads to skeletal muscle atrophy, decreasing the quality of life. We aimed to search highly responsive genes in diabetic muscle atrophy in a common diabetes model and to further characterize associated signaling pathways. Mice were killed 1, 3, or 5 wk after streptozotocin or control. Gene expression of calf muscles was analyzed using microarray and protein signaling with Western blotting. We identified translational repressor protein REDD1 (regulated in development and DNA damage responses) that increased seven- to eightfold and was associated with muscle atrophy in diabetes. The diabetes-induced increase in REDD1 was confirmed at the protein level. This result was accompanied by the increased gene expression of DNA damage/repair pathways and decreased expression in ATP production pathways. Concomitantly, increased phosphorylation of AMPK and dephosphorylation of the Akt/mTOR/S6K1/FoxO pathway of proteins were observed together with increased protein ubiquitination. These changes were especially evident during the first 3 wk, along with the strong decrease in muscle mass. Diabetes also induced an increase in myostatin protein and decreased MAPK signaling. These, together with decreased serum insulin and increased serum glucose, remained altered throughout the 5-wk period. In conclusion, diabetic myopathy induced by streptozotocin led to alteration of multiple signaling pathways. Of those, increased REDD1 and myostatin together with decreased Akt/mTOR/FoxO signaling are associated with diabetic muscle atrophy. The increased REDD1 and decreased Akt/mTOR/FoxO signaling followed a similar time course and thus may be explained, in part, by increased expression of genes in DNA damage/repair and possibly also decrease in ATP-production pathways. © 2012 the American Physiological Society.

Koivukangas J.,University of Oulu | Tammelin T.,Research Center for Sport and Health science | Tammelin T.,Finnish Institute of Occupational Health | Kaakinen M.,University of Oulu | And 4 more authors.
Schizophrenia Research | Year: 2010

Background: Literature regarding physical activity and fitness among subjects at risk for psychosis especially in adolescents is scarce. This study evaluated the level of physical activity and cardio-respiratory fitness among subjects at risk for psychosis in a relatively large birth cohort sample. Methods: The study population consisted of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 including 6987 adolescents who self-reported their physical activity by responding to a postal inquiry in 2001-2002 at the age of 15-16 years. Their cardiorespiratory fitness was measured in a clinical examination by a submaximal cycle ergometer test. Vulnerability to psychosis was defined in three ways: having a parent with a history of psychosis, having prodromal symptoms of psychosis measured by PROD-screen questionnaire at the age of 15-16 years or having actually developed psychosis after the field study (in 2002-2005). The Finnish Hospital Discharge Register was used to find out about parental and the individual's own psychosis. Results: Those individuals who developed psychosis were more likely to be physically inactive (OR 3.3; CI 95% (1.4-7.9) adjusted for gender, parental socio-economic status, family structure and parents' physical activity) and to have poor cardiorespiratory fitness (OR 2.2; 95% CI 0.6-7.8 adjusted for parental socio-economic status, family structure and parents' physical activity) compared to those who did not develop psychosis. Conclusions: Adolescents who would actually develop psychosis had a relatively low level of physical activity compared to their age mates. General recommendations for physical activity would be important for subjects at risk for developing psychosis in order to avoid detrimental effect of physical inactivity on overall health. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Multanen J.,University of Jyvaskyla | Nieminen M.T.,University of Oulu | Hakkinen A.,University of Jyvaskyla | Kujala U.M.,University of Jyvaskyla | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Bone and Mineral Research | Year: 2014

Osteoarthritis and osteoporosis often coexist in postmenopausal women. The simultaneous effect of bone-favorable high-impact training on these diseases is not well understood and is a topic of controversy. We evaluated the effects of high-impact exercise on bone mineral content (BMC) and the estimated biochemical composition of knee cartilage in postmenopausal women with mild knee osteoarthritis. Eighty women aged 50 to 66 years with mild knee osteoarthritis were randomly assigned to undergo supervised progressive exercise three times a week for 12 months (n = 40) or to a nonintervention control group (n = 40). BMC of the femoral neck, trochanter, and lumbar spine was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The biochemical composition of cartilage was estimated using delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) cartilage (dGEMRIC), sensitive to cartilage glycosaminoglycan content, and transverse relaxation time (T2) mapping that is sensitive to the properties of the collagen network. In addition, we evaluated clinically important symptoms and physical performance-related risk factors of falling: cardiorespiratory fitness, dynamic balance, maximal isometric knee extension and flexion forces, and leg power. Thirty-six trainees and 40 controls completed the study. The mean gain in femoral neck BMC in the exercise group was 0.6% (95% CI, -0.2% to 1.4%) and the mean loss in the control group was -1.2% (95% CI, -2.1% to -0.4%). The change in baseline, body mass, and adjusted body mass change in BMC between the groups was significant (p = 0.005), whereas no changes occurred in the biochemical composition of the cartilage, as investigated by MRI. Balance, muscle force, and cardiorespiratory fitness improved significantly more (3% to 11%) in the exercise group than in the control group. Progressively implemented high-impact training, which increased bone mass, did not affect the biochemical composition of cartilage and may be feasible in the prevention of osteoporosis and physical performance-related risk factors of falling in postmenopausal women. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

Kantomaa M.T.,University of Oulu | Tammelin T.H.,Finnish Institute of Occupational Health | Tammelin T.H.,Research Center for Sport and Health science | Demakakos P.,University College London | And 2 more authors.
Health Education Research | Year: 2010

This study examined whether physical activity, mental health and socio-economic position were associated with the overall academic performance and future educational plans of adolescents aged 15-16 years. We used a sample of 7002 boys and girls from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. Data were collected by a postal enquiry in 2001-02. Multivariable logistic regression models were estimated and adjusted for family structure and all variables in the models. In the fully adjusted models, higher levels of physical activity and high parental socio-economic position were associated with higher overall academic performance and future plans for higher education. High scoring on behavioural problems was related to lower overall academic performance and poorer future academic plans. In summary, a higher level of physical activity, fewer behavioural problems and higher socio-economic position were independently associated with high self-perceived overall academic performance and plans for higher education among adolescents. The interrelations of these factors and the positive relationship between physical activity, mental health and school outcomes provide a context of critical importance for future research, intervention programming and policy directed at improving the educational attainment of adolescents. © The Author 2008. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

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