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Castel Guelfo di Bologna, Italy

Habyarimana E.,Research Center for Industrial Crops | Lorenzoni C.,Catholic University of the Sacred Heart | Busconi M.,Catholic University of the Sacred Heart
Maydica | Year: 2010

Growth of biomass sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) under semi-arid conditions in Mediterranean region is mainly hindered by water deficit. This study aimed at physiologically and genetically evaluating sorghum genotypes for biomass performance under different water regimes. Of the seventy-seven varieties studied, tropical landraces were more promising at large, in terms of aboveground biomass yields under irrigation and rainfed experiments. Performance under drought-stressed conditions was dependent upon green leaf area retention (r:-0.47; P: 0.001), plant height (r: 0.50; P: 0.001), and maturity (r: 0.61; P: 0.001). A stay-green source (SDS 1948-3) along with a senescent type (IS 33350) was identified. In the segregating progeny from their cross, stay-green inheritance appeared polygenic with a dominant major gene that determine a reduced rate of senescence. Stay-green genotypes displayed high leaf relative water content (r =-0,22; P = ≤ 0,01), and high leaf nitrogen content (r =-0,26; P = ≤ 0,01). Nine linkage groups were constructed using 40 SSRs loci purposefully selected from known map positions that could span 439 cM (Kosambi's function), with a mean distance of 15 cM between any two adjacent loci. Three chromosomal regions possibly related with delayed senescence were perliminarly located. SDS 1948-3, a population supplied by ICRISAT, coming from Kenya, could be of interest contributing to drought tolerance in breeding for sorghum with high and stable biomass yield. Source

La Marca M.,CNR Institute of Agricultural Biology and Biotechnology | Beffy P.,CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology | Della Croce C.,CNR Institute of Agricultural Biology and Biotechnology | Gervasi P.G.,CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology | And 3 more authors.
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2012

Primary cultures of rat hepatocytes were used to investigate whether and how eight isothiocynates (ITCs) with different chemical structures (the aromatic benzyl, 4-hydroxybenzyl, phenethyl isothiocyanates and the aliphatic allyl, napin, iberin, raphasatin isothiocyanates and sulforaphane) derived from hydrolyzed glucosinolates, were able to modulate cytochrome P450 (CYP) and antioxidant/detoxifying enzymes and to activate the Nrf2 transcription factor. The aromatic ITCs at 40 μM markedly increased the transcription of CYP1A1 and 1A2 mRNA and increased the associated ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity after 24. h of treatment. By contrast, the aliphatic ITCs (40 μM) decreased CYP1A1 and 1A2 transcription, together with the corresponding EROD activity. The same treatment also caused a striking and similar transcriptional repression of CYP3A2, and the corresponding benzyloxyquinoline debenzylase activity in response to all the ITCs tested. In the same culture conditions, most of the antioxidant/detoxifying enzymes were significantly up-regulated by 40 μM ITCs. In particular, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase and heme oxygenase-1 were induced, although to different levels, at transcriptional, protein and/or activity levels by all the ITCs. However, glutathione S-transferase activity was not induced by the allyl, benzyl, and 4-hydroxybenzyl ITCs, glutathione reductase activity was not induced by benzyl, and 4-hydroxybenzyl ITCs and catalase activity was not induced by allyl ITC. As for the Nrf2 transcription factor, a partial translocation of its protein from the cytosol to the nucleus was revealed by immunoblotting after 1. h of treatment for all the ITCs tested. The ability of ITCs to induce the antioxidant and phase II enzymes did not appear to be affected by their hydrophilicity or other structural factors. Taken together, these results show that these ITCs are effective inducers of ARE/Nrf2-regulated antioxidant/detoxifying genes and have the potential to inhibit, at least in rat liver, the bioactivation of carcinogens dependent on CYP3A2 catalysis. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Confalonieri R.,University of Milan | Bregaglio S.,University of Milan | Stella T.,University of Milan | Negrini G.,University of Milan | And 3 more authors.
iEMSs 2012 - Managing Resources of a Limited Planet: Proceedings of the 6th Biennial Meeting of the International Environmental Modelling and Software Society | Year: 2012

The availability of different crop models and of a variety of techniques to evaluate their behaviour led to a change of paradigm in crop models use. Modellers are now looking beyond the idea of groups of users and developers grounded on a specific model, and international initiatives focusing on model improvement basing on intercomparison and knowledge sharing are recently catalysing the attention of the international community. Also, the analysis under environmental conditions of no adaptation by crops, such as the ones of climate change scenarios, demand for extension of crop models to account for extreme events, diseases and pests impact, difficult to implement into legacy code. The Crop Models Library (CropML) is a framework-independent MS .NET software component where different pure (e.g., WOFOST, CropSyst, WARM), hybrid and new modelling solutions for crop growth and development are implemented following a fine level of granularity, according to a high level software architecture. CropML can be extended by third parties and is distributed at no cost with a software development kit, including documentation of code and algorithms and sample applications. CropML provides modellers with an environment favouring the hybridization of models with parts from others, the evolution of existing approaches, and the possibility of analysing and easily comparing diverse modelling solutions. As an example, a new generation of SUCROS-type models has been developed and included in the component. Comparison of the standard and of the new version of the WOFOST model carried out using data from rice field experiments revealed an increase in accuracy and robustness with less than half of the parameters used by the standard version of the model. These results support the idea that high-level technology for models formalization can favour the development of the models themselves. Source

Confalonieri R.,University of Milan | Donatelli M.,Research Center for Industrial Crops | Donatelli M.,European Commission | Bregaglio S.,University of Milan | And 2 more authors.
iEMSs 2012 - Managing Resources of a Limited Planet: Proceedings of the 6th Biennial Meeting of the International Environmental Modelling and Software Society | Year: 2012

The Agro-ecological Zones Simulator (AZS) is a platform for data and models sharing for scientists and policy makers, facilitating the analysis of climate change impacts and the identification of possible response strategies through a comprehensive regional-level analysis comprised of: (i) Geo-referenced climate, soil and terrain data, combined into a land resources database;(ii) Crop suitability assessment and land productivity of cropping systems; (iii) Procedures for calculating the potential agronomically attainable yield; (iv) Procedures for computing actual yields as limited by water availability and management, biotic and abiotic factors; and (v) Selected agricultural production systems with defined input and management relationships, crop-specific environmental requirements and adaptability characteristics. The software core of the platform is given by an instance of the BioMA platform. The platform facilitates the evaluation of the impacts of projected changes in temperature, precipitation and evaporative demands on crop growth and function, including investigations of adaptation potentials by means of management optimization and use of available or improved crop varieties. Simulations are performed using modelling solutions based on extensible, multi-model components for crop growth and development, soil water dynamics, biotic (e.g., diseases) and abiotic (e.g., ozone concentration, frost events) stressors, hourly and daily weather variable generation, automatic management practices, and with a generic component implementing different approaches for crop suitability. The inclusion of biotic and abiotic factors in modelling solutions allows for explicit computations of changing pressures on crops under a changing climate, increasing the realism of the modeled systems. AZS is currently operational for Latin America and Caribe; it was recently used by the World Bank's Agriculture and Rural Development of Latin America for the analysis of climate change impacts on four major crops: wheat, maize, rice and soybean. The results of those simulations and analysis are presented as a first application of the AZS platform.,. Source

Baasanjav-Gerber C.,German Institute of Human Nutrition | Hollnagel H.M.,Dow Chemical Company | Brauchmann J.,German Institute of Human Nutrition | Iori R.,Research Center for Industrial Crops | Glatt H.,German Institute of Human Nutrition
Mutagenesis | Year: 2011

Some plants use electrophilic metabolites as a defence against biological enemies. Some of them may react with DNA. We devised a new model to test this hypothesis. Plant tissue was homogenised. After incubation of the homogenate at 37°C for varying periods, the plant DNA was analysed for the presence of adducts using the 32P-postlabelling technique. Adducts were detected with all Brassicales studied. Broccoli was investigated in detail. Adducts were absent in DNA isolated immediately after homogenisation of the plant. Subsequently, five characteristic adduct spots were formed in the homogenate, the maximum being reached after nearly 4 h. Adduct formation was low when broccoli was steamed before homogenisation, but was re-established when myrosinase was added to the homogenate, indicating that the active constituents were glucosinolates. Broccoli juice was mutagenic to Salmonella typhimurium, forming the same adduct spots in these target cells as in plant homogenate, but the relative intensity of the individual spots varied between both models. The patterns of adduct spots formed in homogenates of 15 other Brassicales species and tissues were similar to those detected with broccoli florets heads. However, the relative intensities of the spots varied. Sporadically, some spots were missing or additional spots appeared. These results, therefore, suggest that several different glucosinolates contribute to the adduct formation. © 2010 The Author Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the UK Environmental Mutagen Society. All rights reserved. Source

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