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Munifah I.,Bogor Agricultural University | Sunarti T.C.,Bogor Agricultural University | Irianto H.E.,Research Center for Fisheries Management and Conservation | Meryandini A.,Bogor Agricultural University
Biosciences Biotechnology Research Asia | Year: 2015

Indonesia is known as second seaweed producer in the world after China. Gracilaria sp seaweed is important commodity in industry, as raw material to produce agar and it derivate products. Solid wastes of agar seaweed processing industry contain considerable amounts of cellulose. It can effectively be utilized either as a major source of energy feedstock or as a r aw material for production of high value product. Here, hundreds of cellulolytic bacteria were screened and isolated from solid wastes of agar seaweed processing industry. Among the isolates, LA4P strains showing higher potential for practical uses were purified on solid wastes of agar seaweed processing Industry; (SWA) agar plates and identified as Bacillus pumilus strains by morphological, physiological, and biochemical characterization and 16S rRNA gene analysis. The production patterns of cellulose degrading enzymes were investigated during cell culture. The isolated strains produced CMCase, Avicelase, glucosidase, and cellobiase enzymes, which suggested synergic cellulolytic systems in Bacillus pumilus LA4P.

Dsikowitzky L.,RWTH Aachen | Heruwati E.,Research and Development Center for Marine and Fisheries Product Processing and Biotechnology 4 | Ariyani F.,Research and Development Center for Marine and Fisheries Product Processing and Biotechnology 4 | Irianto H.E.,Research Center for Fisheries Management and Conservation | Schwarzbauer J.,RWTH Aachen
Environmental Chemistry Letters | Year: 2014

Jakarta is a booming coastal megacity in Indonesia with over 10 million inhabitants. The rivers flowing through the city district receive enormous amounts of untreated wastewaters from households and industries and discharge high pollutant loads into Jakarta Bay. Applying a screening approach for the identification of characteristic site-specific and harmful organic contaminants, we frequently found the insect repellent N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) in river water and seawater samples from Jakarta. The compound was previously reported as persistent aquatic contaminant in industrial countries, and we present here the first data set from a tropical megacity. Concentrations in river water and seawater from Jakarta were exceptionally high, up to 24,000 ng L-1, and exceeded by far all published concentrations in surface waters worldwide. We explained this with massive usage of the compound, lack of wastewater treatment and low average river flow as compared to rivers in other tropical megacities. The usage and properties of DEET indicate its suitability as molecular marker of municipal wastewaters. Such markers are useful to trace emissions from specific pollution sources in aquatic systems as a basis for the investigation of related impacts. We show here that DEET is in particular useful to trace the long-range distribution of municipal wastewaters in tropical freshwater and coastal systems. This application is of great value for tracing such inputs in tropical coastal habitats which are sensitive to changing water quality like coral reefs. This assists to uncover whether specific conditions in these systems could be related to pollutant inputs from land. © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

Dsikowitzky L.,RWTH Aachen | Strater M.,RWTH Aachen | Dwiyitno R.,RWTH Aachen | Dwiyitno R.,Research and Development Center for Marine and Fisheries Product Processing and Biotechnology 4 | And 3 more authors.
Marine Pollution Bulletin | Year: 2016

Jakarta is an Indonesian coastal megacity with over 10 million inhabitants. The rivers flowing through the city receive enormous amounts of untreated wastewaters and discharge their pollutant loads into Jakarta Bay. We utilized a screening approach to identify those site-specific compounds that represent the major contamination of the cities' water resources, and detected a total number of 71 organic contaminants in Jakarta river water samples. Especially contaminants originating from municipal wastewater discharges were detected in high concentrations, including flame retardants, personal care products and pharmaceutical drugs.A flame retardant, a synthetic fragrance and caffeine were used as marker compounds to trace the riverine transport of municipal wastewaters into Jakarta Bay. These markers are also appropriate to trace municipal wastewater discharges to other tropical coastal ecosystems. This application is in particular useful to evaluate wastewater inputs from land-based sources to habitats which are sensitive to changing water quality, like coral reefs. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

Satria F.,Research Center for Fisheries Management and Conservation
African Journal of Marine Science | Year: 2015

Indonesian waters have a high diversity of sharks and rays, with at least 118 species belonging to 25 families found throughout the vast archipelago. Indonesia also has the highest shark landings globally and nearly all high‑value shark species are overexploited and could be considered threatened. This situation is of international concern, especially among conservationists and elasmobranch scientists. Most of the shark catch in Indonesian waters is taken as bycatch of fisheries deploying various types of gear, including longlines, driftnets, handlines and purse‑seines. However, sharks are also targeted in several regions of eastern and southern Indonesia, where they are often the main source of livelihood for many artisanal fishers. Shark fishing, whether targeted or bycatch, occurs throughout most of Indonesia's waters, and the large size of the EEZ, which encompasses nearly 6 million km2, is a primary constraint regarding the effective management of shark fisheries. In 2009, 11 fisheries management zones were established through the gazetting of a regulation on regional fisheries, facilitating management by the Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries. Here, we discuss how the implementation of a number of regulations gazetted by the Indonesian government to ensure sustainable utilisation of fisheries resources should take into account shark resources. We also examine recent elasmobranch conservation efforts by the government, including the recent designation of whale sharks Rhincodon typus and manta rays Manta alfredi and M. birostris as fully protected species, and a prohibition on exports of products of hammerhead Sphyrna spp. and oceanic whitetip sharks Carcharhinus longimanus. © 2015 NISC (Pty) Ltd.

Fahmi,Indonesian Institute of Sciences | Dharmadi,Research Center for Fisheries Management and Conservation
African Journal of Marine Science | Year: 2015

Sharks are commonly caught in Indonesian waters both by target fisheries and as bycatch. Fishers targeting sharks mostly employ drift longlines, whereas tuna longlines and gillnets are the gear mostly responsible for shark bycatch. Our studies on shark fisheries have been conducted since 2006 and have focused on the eastern Indian Ocean region, the most exploited area in Indonesian waters. Sharks are mostly landed as bycatch in the tuna fishery (using longlines and gillnets) in Cilacap, Central Java province, and as targeted catch by the pelagic shark fishery at Tanjung Luar (Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara province), one of the largest targeted shark fisheries in Indonesia. Eight years (2006–2013) of monthly shark bycatch data from the fishing port at Cilacap and one year (February 2012–January 2013) of daily catch data from Tanjung Luar were analysed to determine their respective contributions to shark landings in Indonesia's Eastern Indian Ocean Fisheries Management Region. A total catch of 1 364 t of sharks was recorded at Cilacap, with an average monthly catch of 14.2 t (SD 18.5). A total of 1 426 sharks were recorded at Tanjung Luar, with an average daily catch of five individuals. Whaler sharks (Carcharhinidae) were the most commonly caught in both fisheries, consisting primarily of silky sharks Carcharhinus falciformis in the targeted fishery and blue sharks Prionace glauca in the tuna fishery. Overall, the Cilacap bycatch contributed 4.7% of the annual shark landings in the region. In 2012, the fishery at Tanjung Luar contributed 5.2% of the regional shark landings. The relatively low recorded contributions of these two fisheries may be inaccurate and may reflect double‑counting at the provincial level. Given the different shark species composition, the two fisheries require different management and conservation strategies to be included in Indonesia's National Plan of Action for the Conservation and Management of Sharks (NPOA‑Sharks). © 2015 NISC (Pty) Ltd.

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