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Munifah I.,Bogor Agricultural University | Sunarti T.C.,Bogor Agricultural University | Irianto H.E.,Research Center for Fisheries Management and Conservation | Meryandini A.,Bogor Agricultural University
Biosciences Biotechnology Research Asia

Indonesia is known as second seaweed producer in the world after China. Gracilaria sp seaweed is important commodity in industry, as raw material to produce agar and it derivate products. Solid wastes of agar seaweed processing industry contain considerable amounts of cellulose. It can effectively be utilized either as a major source of energy feedstock or as a r aw material for production of high value product. Here, hundreds of cellulolytic bacteria were screened and isolated from solid wastes of agar seaweed processing industry. Among the isolates, LA4P strains showing higher potential for practical uses were purified on solid wastes of agar seaweed processing Industry; (SWA) agar plates and identified as Bacillus pumilus strains by morphological, physiological, and biochemical characterization and 16S rRNA gene analysis. The production patterns of cellulose degrading enzymes were investigated during cell culture. The isolated strains produced CMCase, Avicelase, glucosidase, and cellobiase enzymes, which suggested synergic cellulolytic systems in Bacillus pumilus LA4P. Source

Dsikowitzky L.,RWTH Aachen | Heruwati E.,Research and Development Center for Marine and Fisheries Product Processing and Biotechnology 4 | Ariyani F.,Research and Development Center for Marine and Fisheries Product Processing and Biotechnology 4 | Irianto H.E.,Research Center for Fisheries Management and Conservation | Schwarzbauer J.,RWTH Aachen
Environmental Chemistry Letters

Jakarta is a booming coastal megacity in Indonesia with over 10 million inhabitants. The rivers flowing through the city district receive enormous amounts of untreated wastewaters from households and industries and discharge high pollutant loads into Jakarta Bay. Applying a screening approach for the identification of characteristic site-specific and harmful organic contaminants, we frequently found the insect repellent N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) in river water and seawater samples from Jakarta. The compound was previously reported as persistent aquatic contaminant in industrial countries, and we present here the first data set from a tropical megacity. Concentrations in river water and seawater from Jakarta were exceptionally high, up to 24,000 ng L-1, and exceeded by far all published concentrations in surface waters worldwide. We explained this with massive usage of the compound, lack of wastewater treatment and low average river flow as compared to rivers in other tropical megacities. The usage and properties of DEET indicate its suitability as molecular marker of municipal wastewaters. Such markers are useful to trace emissions from specific pollution sources in aquatic systems as a basis for the investigation of related impacts. We show here that DEET is in particular useful to trace the long-range distribution of municipal wastewaters in tropical freshwater and coastal systems. This application is of great value for tracing such inputs in tropical coastal habitats which are sensitive to changing water quality like coral reefs. This assists to uncover whether specific conditions in these systems could be related to pollutant inputs from land. © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland. Source

Dsikowitzky L.,RWTH Aachen | Strater M.,RWTH Aachen | Dwiyitno R.,RWTH Aachen | Dwiyitno R.,Research and Development Center for Marine and Fisheries Product Processing and Biotechnology 4 | And 3 more authors.
Marine Pollution Bulletin

Jakarta is an Indonesian coastal megacity with over 10 million inhabitants. The rivers flowing through the city receive enormous amounts of untreated wastewaters and discharge their pollutant loads into Jakarta Bay. We utilized a screening approach to identify those site-specific compounds that represent the major contamination of the cities' water resources, and detected a total number of 71 organic contaminants in Jakarta river water samples. Especially contaminants originating from municipal wastewater discharges were detected in high concentrations, including flame retardants, personal care products and pharmaceutical drugs.A flame retardant, a synthetic fragrance and caffeine were used as marker compounds to trace the riverine transport of municipal wastewaters into Jakarta Bay. These markers are also appropriate to trace municipal wastewater discharges to other tropical coastal ecosystems. This application is in particular useful to evaluate wastewater inputs from land-based sources to habitats which are sensitive to changing water quality, like coral reefs. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Prescott J.,Australian Fisheries Management Authority | Zhou S.,CSIRO | Prasetyo A.P.,Research Center for Fisheries Management and Conservation
Marine and Freshwater Research

Tropical sea cucumbers are commonly exploited by small-scale, poorly managed fisheries. A fundamental problem in managing sea cucumber fisheries is the lack of basic knowledge of important life history characteristics for most species. As a result of plastic body dimensions, biological research on this group of animals becomes exceptionally challenging. To improve our understanding of essential biological parameters, we conducted a study to investigate correlations among various body measurements. We analysed a total of 18 sea cucumber species and more than 6600 individuals collected at Scott Reef in the Timor Sea, north-west Australia. We used hierarchical Bayesian errors-in-variables models to specifically take into account measurement errors that are obviously unavoidable. The measures included three types of weights (wet weight, gutted weight and dry weight) and two body dimensions (length and width). The modelling reveals that using both body length and width as independent variables, wet weight increases approximately linearly with body length, but is a power function (∼1.6) of body width, although variability exists among species. Dry weight tends to increase more slowly with body length, but has a similar power function of body width. Linear relationships are established between the three types of weights. On average, ∼11% of a live specimen and ∼16% of a gutted specimen is processed to the commercially traded dry body wall. Our results can be applied to sea cucumbers in other areas and can be useful for data standardisation and size-based fisheries management. © CSIRO 2015. Source

Satria F.,Research Center for Fisheries Management and Conservation
African Journal of Marine Science

Indonesian waters have a high diversity of sharks and rays, with at least 118 species belonging to 25 families found throughout the vast archipelago. Indonesia also has the highest shark landings globally and nearly all high‑value shark species are overexploited and could be considered threatened. This situation is of international concern, especially among conservationists and elasmobranch scientists. Most of the shark catch in Indonesian waters is taken as bycatch of fisheries deploying various types of gear, including longlines, driftnets, handlines and purse‑seines. However, sharks are also targeted in several regions of eastern and southern Indonesia, where they are often the main source of livelihood for many artisanal fishers. Shark fishing, whether targeted or bycatch, occurs throughout most of Indonesia's waters, and the large size of the EEZ, which encompasses nearly 6 million km2, is a primary constraint regarding the effective management of shark fisheries. In 2009, 11 fisheries management zones were established through the gazetting of a regulation on regional fisheries, facilitating management by the Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries. Here, we discuss how the implementation of a number of regulations gazetted by the Indonesian government to ensure sustainable utilisation of fisheries resources should take into account shark resources. We also examine recent elasmobranch conservation efforts by the government, including the recent designation of whale sharks Rhincodon typus and manta rays Manta alfredi and M. birostris as fully protected species, and a prohibition on exports of products of hammerhead Sphyrna spp. and oceanic whitetip sharks Carcharhinus longimanus. © 2015 NISC (Pty) Ltd. Source

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