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Jamart C.,Catholic University of Louvain | Francaux M.,Catholic University of Louvain | Millet G.Y.,Jean Monnet University | Deldicque L.,Research Center for Exercise and Health | Feasson L.,Jean Monnet University
Journal of Applied Physiology | Year: 2012

In this study, the coordinated activation of ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP), autophagy-lysosomal pathway (ALP), and mitochondrial remodeling including mitophagy was assessed by measuring protein markers during ultra-endurance running exercise in human skeletal muscle. Eleven male, experienced ultra-endurance athletes ran for 24 h on a treadmill. Muscle biopsy samples were taken from the vastus lateralis muscle 2 h before starting and immediately after finishing exercise. Athletes ran 149.8 ± 16.3 km with an effective running time of 18 h 42 min (±41min). The phosphorylation state of Akt (-74 ± 5%; P < 0.001), FOXO3a (-49 ± 9%; P < 0.001), mTOR Ser2448 (-32 ± 14%; P = 0.028), and 4E-BP1 (-34 ± 7%; P < 0.001) was decreased, whereas AMPK phosphorylation state increased by 247 ± 170% (P = 0.042). Proteasome β2 subunit activity increased by 95 ± 44% (P = 0.028), wheras the activities associated with the β1 and β5 subunits remained unchanged. MuRF1 protein level increased by 55 ± 26% (P = 0.034), whereas MAFbx protein and ubiquitinconjugated protein levels did not change. LC3bII increased by 554 ± 256% (P = 0.005), and the form of ATG12 conjugated to ATG5 increased by 36 ± 17% (P = 0.042). The mitochondrial fission marker phospho-DRP1 increased by 110 ± 47% (P = 0.003), whereas the fusion marker Mfn1 and the mitophagy markers Parkin and PINK1 remained unchanged. These results fit well with a coordinated regulation of ALP and UPP triggered by FOXO3 and AMPK during ultra-endurance exercise. Copyright © 2012 the American Physiological Society.


Michels N.,Ghent University | Huybrechts I.,Ghent University | Bammann K.,University of Bremen | Bammann K.,BIPS Institute for Epidemiology and Prevention Research | And 12 more authors.
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2013

The present paper will use fat mass percentage (FM%) obtained via BOD POD® air-displacement plethysmography (FMADP%) to examine the relative validity of (1) anthropometric measurements/indices and (2) of FM% assessed with equations (FMeq%) based on skinfold thickness and bioelectrical impedance (BIA). In 480 Belgian children (aged 5-11 years) weight, height, skinfold thickness (triceps and subscapular), body circumferences (mid-upper arm, waist and hip), foot-to-foot BIA (Tanita®) and FMADP% were measured. Anthropometric measurements and calculated indices were compared with FMADP%. Next, published equations were used to calculate FMeq% using impedance (equations of Tanita®, Tyrrell, Shaefer and Deurenberg) or skinfold thickness (equations of Slaughter, Goran, Dezenberg and Deurenberg). Both indices and equations performed better in girls than in boys. For both sexes, the sum of skinfold thicknesses resulted in the highest correlation with FMADP%, followed by triceps skinfold, arm fat area and subscapular skinfold. In general, comparing FMeq% with FMADP% indicated mostly an age and sex effect, and an increasing underestimation but less dispersion with increasing FM%. The Tanita® impedance equation and the Deurenberg skinfold equation performed the best, although none of the used equations were interchangeable with FMADP%. In conclusion, the sum of triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness is recommended as marker of FM% in the absence of specialised technologies. Nevertheless, the higher workload, cost and survey management of an immobile device like the BOD POD® remains justified. © 2012 The Authors.


Tankisheva E.,Research Center for Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation | Jonkers I.,Research Center for Movement Control and Neuroplasticity | Delecluse C.,Research Center for Exercise and Health | V Lenthe G.,Catholic University of Leuven | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research | Year: 2013

Tankisheva E, Jonkers I, Boonen S, Delecluse C, van Lenthe GH, Druyts HLJ, Spaepen P, and Verschueren SMP. Transmission of whole-body vibration and its effect on muscle activation. J Strength Cond Res 27(9): 2533-2541, 2013- The aim of current study was to measure the transmission of whole-body vibration through the entire body and to relate this to body posture and induced muscular activation. Eight clinically healthy subjects performed 3 static body postures-high squat (1358), deep squat (1108), and erect stance, whereas vibration transmission was assessed over a wide range of accelerations (from 0.33 to 7.98 g) and frequencies (from 30 to 50 Hz). To assess the vibration transmission, 9 triaxial accelerometers were attached from the ankle up to the head and the root mean square of acceleration signal of each site-specific body point was calculated. Additionally, muscle activity from 7 lower limb muscles was recorded. The results showed a significant attenuation of the platform accelerations transmitted from the feet to the head. Compared with erect stance, knee bent posture significantly diminished vibration transmission at the hip, spine, and the head (p < 0.05). Vibration transmission to the spine was significantly lower in deep vs. high squat (p < 0.05), suggesting that further knee bending may reduce the risk of overloading the spine. Vibration increased the muscle activity in most leg and hip muscles during both squat postures, although, on average, no clear dose-response relationship between the acceleration and/or frequency and muscle response was found. The muscular activation of vastus medialis and rectus femoris showed clear negative correlation to the vibration transmission at the sternum. The specific vibration parameters used in the present study can be considered as safe and suitable for a training program. Moreover, the present results contribute to optimize the most advantageous wholebody vibration protocol and to determine the beneficial effects on muscle and bone. © 2013 National Strength and Conditioning Association.


Zbinden-Foncea H.,Catholic University of Louvain | Zbinden-Foncea H.,Finis Terrae University | Raymackers J.-M.,Catholic University of Louvain | Deldicque L.,Catholic University of Louvain | And 3 more authors.
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise | Year: 2012

Purpose: Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 (TLR2, TLR4) are found in the membrane of skeletal muscle cells. A variety of molecular components can activate TLR2 and TLR4, among others, long-chain fatty acids. The subsequent downstream signaling triggers the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathways. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to test whether an elevation of extracellular nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) observed during endurance exercise may activate the MAPK and NF-κB pathways via TLR2 and TLR4. Methods: tlr2 and tlr4 mice and wild-type C57BL/6J animals (WT) were submitted to a standardized endurance exercise. Results: Immediately after exercise, the phosphorylation state of p38 MAPK, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), and c-Jun was increased in the tibialis anterior (TA) and soleus (SOL) muscles of WT (P < 0.05). The phosphorylation state of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and IκB kinase α/β and the DNA-binding of NF-κB remained unchanged. The activation of p38 MAPK, JNK, and c-Jun was completely blunted in TA of tlr2 -/- and tlr4-/- mice, whereas in SOL, it represented only 25% of the increase observed in WT mice. The causal relationship between NEFA concentration and MAPK activation was evaluated by injecting mice with heparin. A similar increase in plasma NEFA was observed after heparin injection than after endurance exercise. JNK and p38 MAPK were activated under heparin in TA and SOL of WT (P < 0.05) but not in muscles of tlr2-/- and tlr4-/- mice. Conclusions: The present study supports the idea that during endurance exercise, TLR2 and TLR4 mediate a signal linking the elevated plasma NEFA concentration to the activation of p38 MAPK and JNK. © 2012 by the American College of Sports Medicine.


Masschelein E.,Research Center for Exercise and Health | Van Thienen R.,Research Center for Exercise and Health | Wang X.,Catholic University of Leuven | Van Schepdael A.,Catholic University of Leuven | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Applied Physiology | Year: 2012

Exercise tolerance is impaired in hypoxia, and it has recently been shown that dietary nitrate supplementation can reduce the oxygen (O2) cost of muscle contractions. Therefore, we investigated the effect of dietary nitrate supplementation on arterial, muscle, and cerebral oxygenation status, symptoms of acute mountain sickness (AMS), and exercise tolerance at simulated 5,000 m altitude. Fifteen young, healthy volunteers participated in three experimental sessions according to a crossover study design. From 6 days prior to each session, subjects received either beetroot (BR) juice delivering 0.07 mmol nitrate/kg body wt/day or a control drink (CON). One session was in normoxia with CON (NORCON); the two other sessions were in hypoxia (11% O 2), with either CON (HYPCON) or BR (HYPBR). Subjects first cycled for 20 min at 45% of peak O2 consumption (VO2peak; EX45%) and thereafter, performed a maximal incremental exercise test (EXmax). Whole-body VO2 arterial O2 saturation (%SpO2) via pulsoximetry, and tissue oxygenation index of both muscle (TOIM) and cerebral (TOI C) tissue by near-infrared spectroscopy were measured. Hypoxia per se substantially reduced VO2peak, %SpO2, TOIM, and TOIC (NORCON vs. HYPCON, P < 0.05). Compared with HYPCON, VO2 at rest and during EX45% was lower in HYPBR (P < 0.05), whereas %SpO2 was higher (P < 0.05). TOIM was ∼4-5% higher in HYPBR than in HYPCON both at rest and during EX45% and EXmax (P < 0.05). TOIC as well as the incidence of AMS symptoms were similar between HYPCON and HYPBR at any time. Hypoxia reduced time to exhaustion in EXmax by 36% (P < 0.05), but this ergolytic effect was partly negated by BR (+5%, P < 0.05). Short-term dietary nitrate supplementation improves arterial and muscle oxygenation status but not cerebral oxygenation status during exercise in severe hypoxia. This is associated with improved exercise tolerance against the background of a similar incidence of AMS. © 2012 the American Physiological Society.


Vaisy M.,Research Center for Exercise and Health | Szlufcik K.,Research Center for Exercise and Health | Maris M.,Research Center for Exercise and Health | De Bock K.,Research Center for Exercise and Health | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Molecular Medicine | Year: 2010

Intramyocellular lipids (IMCL) and mitochondrial uncoupling protein-3 (UCP3) have been implicated in the development of muscular insulin resistance. This study aimed to investigate the role of IMCL and UCP3 in the development of glucose intolerance and muscular insulin resistance during 12 weeks of an obesity-inducing 'cafeteria-style' diet alone (CAF), or in conjunction with exercise training from weeks 8-12 (CAFTR), in rats. At the end of the intervention period, gain in body weight was 20% higher in CAF (305±10 g) than controls (CON) (255±14 g; p<0.001) and CAFTR (253±7 g; p<0.001). Furthermore, compared with CON, the Matsuda insulin sensitivity index (ISI), assessed during a 2-h intravenous glucose tolerance test, was markedly lower in CAF (6.7±0.4) than in either CON (15.6±1.4; p<0.001) or CAFTR (11.2±1.1; p<0.001). Moreover, in CAF glucose transport at a submaximal insulin concentration (200 μU/ml) was reduced by ∼60% (p<0.05) in both red and white gastrocnemius muscles, but not in m. soleus. However, glucose transport in CAFTR was similar to CON in red gastrocnemius. In CAF fiber-specific IMCL content determined in m. soleus and extensor digitorum longus (EDL), was higher than in CON (p<0.01) and CAFTR (p<0.001). Muscle UCP3 protein content was not changed by any of the interventions. Interestingly, within CAF and CAFTR, ISI closely negatively correlated with IMCL content in both type I (soleus, r=-0.93; EDL, r=-0.90; p<0.05) and IIa (EDL, r=-0.52, p<0.05) muscle fibers. These findings indicate that changes in IMCL content but not UCP3 content are implicated in short-term effects of cafeteria-style diet and exercise training on muscular insulin sensitivity in rats.


Van Noten P.,Research Center for Exercise and Health | Van Leemputte M.,Research Center for Exercise and Health
Journal of Biomechanics | Year: 2013

After active shortening, isometric force production capacity of muscle is reduced (force depression, FD). The mechanism is incompletely understood but increasing cross-bridge detachment and/or decreasing attachment rate might be involved. Therefore we aimed to investigate the relation between work delivered during shortening (W), and change in half-relaxation time (δ0.5RT) and change in the slow phase of muscle relaxation (δkslow), considered as a marker for cross-bridge detachment rate, after shortening and after a short (0.7s) interruption of activation (deactivation). We hypothesized that shortening induces an accelerated relaxation related to W which is, similar to FD, largely abolished by a short deactivation. In 10 incubated supra-maximally stimulated mouse soleus muscles, we varied the amount of FD at L0 by varying shortening amplitude (0.6, 1.2 and 2.4mm). We found that W not only induces FD (R2=0.92) but also a dose dependent accelerated relaxation (R2=0.88 and R2=0.77 for respectively δkslow and δ0.5RT). In cyclic movements this is of functional significance, because the loss in force generating capacity might be (partially) compensated by faster relaxation. After a short deactivation, both FD and δkslow were largely abolished but δ0.5RT remained largely present. Under the assumption that δkslow reflects a change in cross-bridge detachment rate, these results support the idea that FD is an intrinsic sarcomeric property originating from a work induced reduction of the number of force generating cross-bridges, however not via decreased attachment but via increased detachment rate. © 2013.

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