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Wu Y.,Jiangsu Institute of Nuclear Medicine | Yang M.,Nanjing Medical University | Fan J.,Jiangsu Institute of Nuclear Medicine | Peng Y.,Jiangsu Institute of Nuclear Medicine | And 6 more authors.
Cell Death and Disease | Year: 2014

ADP-ribosylation-like factor 6 interacting protein 5 (Arl6ip5), which belongs to the prenylated rab-acceptor-family, has an important role in exocytic protein trafficking, glutathione metabolism and involves in cancer progression. However, its expression pattern and functional role in bone are unknown. Here we demonstrate that Arl6ip5 knock-out mice (Arl6ip5 ?2/?2) show marked decrease of bone mineral density, trabecular bone volume and trabecular thickness. Histomorphometric studies reveal that bone formation parameters are decreased but bone resorption parameters and mRNA level of osteoclast-specific markers are increased in Arl6ip5?2/?2 mice. In osteoblast, we demonstrate that Arl6ip5 abundantly expresses in osteoblastic cells and is regulated by bone metabolism-related hormones and growth factors. In vitro analysis reveals that osteoblast proliferation and differentiation are impaired in Arl6ip5 knocked-down and deficient primary osteoblast. Arl6ip5 is also found to function as an ER calcium regulator and control calmodulin signaling for osteoblast proliferation. Moreover, Arl6ip5 insufficiency in osteoblast induces ER stress and enhances ER stress-mediated apoptosis. CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (Chop) is involved in the regulation of apoptosis and differentiation in Arl6ip5 knocked-down osteoblasts. For osteoclastogenesis, Arl6ip5 insufficiency in osteoclast precursors has no effect on osteoclast formation. However, knocked-down osteoblastic Arl6ip5 induces receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B ligand (RANKL) expression and enhances osteoclastogenesis. In addition, ER stress and Chop are involved in the RANKL expression in Arl6ip5 knocked-down osteoblasts. In conclusion, we demonstrate that Arl6ip5 is a novel regulator of bone formation in osteoblasts. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source


Guo J.,Xian Jiaotong University | Guo J.,Research Center for Bone and Stem Cells | Ma Q.,Xian Jiaotong University | Zhou X.,Xian Jiaotong University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Cellular Physiology | Year: 2013

Although the expression of p27 has been regarded as a prognostic parameter in human liver cancer since the implication of decreased p27 expression levels in the genesis and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the molecular mechanism linking p27 deficiency and HCC development is still unclear. Here, we report an increase in tumorigenesis and progression as well as an enhanced inflammatory response in p27 deficient mice (p27-/-) and hypothesize the possible mechanism. We show that p27-/- mice display increased proliferation and decreased apoptosis of tumor cells, accompanied by an increase in the serum inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α. Furthermore, our data indicated that the increased number and signal transducers and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation status of infiltrated inflammatory cells was accompanied by increased IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA levels in tumor and normal liver tissue in the p27-/- mice. Moreover, using tumor cell and splenocytes co-culture and tumor homologous transplantation, we validated our hypothesis in vitro and in vivo. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the loss of p27 promotes carcinogens-induced HCC genesis and progression via the elevation of inflammatory cytokines and the augmented activation of STAT3 signaling in tumor cells and infiltrated inflammatory cells. Altogether, the loss of the cyclin kinase inhibitor p27, traditionally regarded as a consequence of DNA damage, can in turn promote HCC progression through enhancing the inflammatory response, potentially representing a promising therapeutic target in the prevention of HCC genesis and progression. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source


Liu K.,Peking University | Ding L.,Peking University | Li Y.,Peking University | Li Y.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute | And 10 more authors.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2014

Neuronal necrosis induced by calcium overload causes devastating brain dysfunction in diseases such as stroke and brain trauma. It has been considered a stochastic event lacking genetic regulation, and pharmacological means to suppress neuronal necrosis are lacking. Using a Drosophila model of calcium overloading, we found JIL-1/mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase 1/2 is a regulator of neuronal necrosis through phosphorylation of histone H3 serine 28 (H3S28ph). Further, we identified its downstream events including displacement of polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) and activation of Trithorax (Trx). To test the role of JIL-1/PRC1/Trx cascade in mammals, we studied the necrosis induced by glutamate in rat cortical neuron cultures and rodent models of brain ischemia and found the cascade is activated in these conditions and inhibition of the cascade suppresses necrosis in vitro and in vivo. Together, our research demonstrates that neuronal necrosis is regulated by a chro-matin-modifying cascade, and this discovery may provide potential therapeutic targets and biomarkers for neuronal necrosis. Source


Guo J.,Xian Jiaotong University | Guo J.,Research Center for Bone and Stem Cells | Ma Z.,Xian Jiaotong University | Ma Q.,Xian Jiaotong University | And 9 more authors.
Current Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2013

Epidemiological and clinical studies have indicated that low vitamin D activity is not only associated with an increased cancer risk and a more aggressive tumor growth, but also connected with an aggravated liver damage caused by chronic inflammation. Meanwhile, increasing evidence has demonstrated that 1,25(OH)2D3 (the most biologically active metabolite of vitamin D) can inhibit inflammatory response in some chronic inflammatory associated cancer, which is considered to have the anti-tumor potency. However, the interaction between 1,25(OH)2D3 and inflammation during hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) initiation and progression is not yet clear. Here, we report an anti-tumorigenesis effect of 1,25(OH) 2D3 via decreasing inflammatory cytokine secretion in HCC and hypothesize the possible underlying mechanism. Firstly, we show that the enhanced tumor growth is associated with elevated inflammatory cytokine IL-6 and TNF-α in 1α (OH)ase gene-knockout mice. Secondly, 1,25(OH) 2D3 can inhibit vitamin D receptor (VDR) shRNA interfered tumor cell growth through decreasing inflammatory cytokine secretion in vitro and in vivo. Finally, using p27kip1 gene knock-out mouse model, we demonstrate that the effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 in inhibiting immune cell related inflammatory cytokine secretion, exerts in a p27 kip1 gene dependent way. Collectively, 1,25(OH)2D 3 inhibits HCC development through up-regulating the expression of p27kip1 in immune cell and reducing inflammatory cytokine production. © 2013 Bentham Science Publishers. Source

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