Research Center for Animal Nutrition and Health

Port-Saint-Louis-du-Rhône, France

Research Center for Animal Nutrition and Health

Port-Saint-Louis-du-Rhône, France
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Aureli R.,Research Center for Animal Nutrition and Health | Ueberschlag Q.,Research Center for Animal Nutrition and Health | Klein F.,Research Center for Animal Nutrition and Health | Noel C.,Research Center for Animal Nutrition and Health | Guggenbuhl P.,Research Center for Animal Nutrition and Health
Poultry Science | Year: 2017

The purpose of the study that is presented herein was to develop near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) calibrations to predict total phosphorus (P), phytate-P, and protein concentrations of feed ingredients commonly used in monogastric feed formulation. Samples representing 14 vegetable ingredients (cereals, cereal by-products, and oilseed meals) were collected worldwide throughout 2013. The samples were assayed by standard wet chemical techniques for total P, phytate-P, and protein content. There was substantial variability in protein, phytate-P, and total P within and between ingredients used in the calibration set. Protein content varied from 76 to 487 g/kg. Total P ranged from 2.09 and 22.5 g/kg and phytate-P ranged from 0.99 and 13.8 g/kg. Within these broad ranges, NIRS values were highly correlated for determination of protein, total P, and phytate-P with a standard error of prediction equal to 9.06 g/kg, 0.80 g/kg, and 0.66 g/kg, respectively. The wide diversity and heterogeneity of the mix of feed ingredients allowed the development of NIRS calibrations of sufficient accuracy to help nutritionists control the nutritional composition of their feed. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.


Hristov A.N.,Pennsylvania State University | Oh J.,Pennsylvania State University | Giallongo F.,Pennsylvania State University | Frederick T.W.,Pennsylvania State University | And 8 more authors.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2015

A quarter of all anthropogenic methane emissions in the United States are from enteric fermentation, primarily from ruminant livestock. This study was undertaken to test the effect of a methane inhibitor, 3-nitrooxypropanol (3NOP), on enteric methane emission in lactating Holstein cows. An experiment was conducted using 48 cows in a randomized block design with a 2-wk covariate period and a 12-wk data collection period. Feed intake, milk production, and fiber digestibility were not affected by the inhibitor. Milk protein and lactose yields were increased by 3NOP. Rumen methane emission was linearly decreased by 3NOP, averaging about 30% lower than the control. Methane emission per unit of feed dry matter intake or per unit of energy-corrected milk were also about 30% less for the 3NOP-treated cows. On average, the body weight gain of 3NOP-treated cows was 80% greater than control cows during the 12-wk experiment. The experiment demonstrated that the methane inhibitor 3NOP, applied at 40 to 80 mg/kg feed dry matter, decreased methane emissions from high-producing dairy cows by 30% and increased body weight gain without negatively affecting feed intake or milk production and composition. The inhibitory effect persisted over 12 wk of treatment, thus offering an effective methane mitigation practice for the livestock industries.


PubMed | Pennsylvania State University, Agriculture Research Division, Research Center for Animal Nutrition and Health, DSM Nutritional Products Inc. and State University of Maringá
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2015

A quarter of all anthropogenic methane emissions in the United States are from enteric fermentation, primarily from ruminant livestock. This study was undertaken to test the effect of a methane inhibitor, 3-nitrooxypropanol (3NOP), on enteric methane emission in lactating Holstein cows. An experiment was conducted using 48 cows in a randomized block design with a 2-wk covariate period and a 12-wk data collection period. Feed intake, milk production, and fiber digestibility were not affected by the inhibitor. Milk protein and lactose yields were increased by 3NOP. Rumen methane emission was linearly decreased by 3NOP, averaging about 30% lower than the control. Methane emission per unit of feed dry matter intake or per unit of energy-corrected milk were also about 30% less for the 3NOP-treated cows. On average, the body weight gain of 3NOP-treated cows was 80% greater than control cows during the 12-wk experiment. The experiment demonstrated that the methane inhibitor 3NOP, applied at 40 to 80 mg/kg feed dry matter, decreased methane emissions from high-producing dairy cows by 30% and increased body weight gain without negatively affecting feed intake or milk production and composition. The inhibitory effect persisted over 12 wk of treatment, thus offering an effective methane mitigation practice for the livestock industries.


PubMed | DSM Nutritional Products Inc., Pennsylvania State University, Agriculture Research Division, Research Center for Animal Nutrition and Health and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of dairy science | Year: 2016

The objective of this study was to compare 2 commonly used techniques for measuring methane emissions from ruminant animals: the GreenFeed (GF) system and the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) technique. The study was part of a larger experiment in which a methane inhibitor, 3-nitrooxypropanol, fed at 4 application rates (0, 40, 60, and 80 mg/kg of feed dry matter) decreased enteric methane emission by an average of 30% (measured by both GF and SF6) in a 12-wk experiment with 48 lactating Holstein cows fed a total mixed ration. The larger experiment used a randomized block design and was conducted in 2 phases (February to May, phase 1, and June to August, phase 2), with 2 sets of 24 cows in each phase. Using both GF and SF6 techniques, methane emission data were collected simultaneously during experimental wk 2, 6, and 12 (phase 1) and 2, 9, and 12 (phase 2), which corresponded to a total of 6 sampling periods. During each sampling period, 8 spot samples of gas emissions (staggered over a 3-d period) were collected from each cow using GF, as well as 324-h collections using the SF6 technique. Methane emission data were averaged per cow for the statistical analysis. The mean methane emission was 373 (standard deviation=96.3) and 405 (standard deviation=156) g/cow per day for GF and SF6, respectively. Coefficients of variation for the 2 methods were 25.8 and 38.6%, respectively; correlation and concordance between the 2 methods were 0.40 and 0.34, respectively. The difference in methane emission between the 2 methods (SF6 - GF) within treatment was from 46 to 144 and 24 to 27 g/d for phases 1 and 2, respectively. In the conditions of this experiment, the SF6 technique produced larger variability in methane emissions than the GF method. The overall difference between the 2 methods was on average about 8%, but was not consistent over time, likely influenced by barn ventilation and background methane and SF6 concentrations.


Reynolds C.K.,University of Reading | Humphries D.J.,University of Reading | Kirton P.,University of Reading | Kindermann M.,DSM Nutritional Products Ltd. | And 2 more authors.
Journal of dairy science | Year: 2014

The objective was to measure effects of 3-nitrooxypropanol (3 NP) on methane production of lactating dairy cows and any associated changes in digestion and energy and N metabolism. Six Holstein-Friesian dairy cows in mid-lactation were fed twice daily a total mixed ration with maize silage as the primary forage source. Cows received 1 of 3 treatments using an experimental design based on two 3 × 3 Latin squares with 5-wk periods. Treatments were a control placebo or 500 or 2,500 mg/d of 3 NP delivered directly into the rumen, via the rumen fistula, in equal doses before each feeding. Measurements of methane production and energy and N balance were obtained during wk 5 of each period using respiration calorimeters and digestion trials. Measurements of rumen pH (48 h) and postprandial volatile fatty acid and ammonia concentrations were made at the end of wk 4. Daily methane production was reduced by 3 NP, but the effects were not dose dependent (reductions of 6.6 and 9.8% for 500 and 2,500 mg/d, respectively). Dosing 3 NP had a transitory inhibitory effect on methane production, which may have been due to the product leaving the rumen in liquid outflow or through absorption or metabolism. Changes in rumen concentrations of volatile fatty acids indicated that the pattern of rumen fermentation was affected by both doses of the product, with a decrease in acetate:propionate ratio observed, but that acetate production was inhibited by the higher dose. Dry matter, organic matter, acid detergent fiber, N, and energy digestibility were reduced at the higher dose of the product. The decrease in digestible energy supply was not completely countered by the decrease in methane excretion such that metabolizable energy supply, metabolizable energy concentration of the diet, and net energy balance (milk plus tissue energy) were reduced by the highest dose of 3 NP. Similarly, the decrease in N digestibility at the higher dose of the product was associated with a decrease in body N balance that was not observed for the lower dose. Milk yield and milk fat concentration and fatty acid composition were not affected but milk protein concentration was greater for the higher dose of 3 NP. Twice-daily rumen dosing of 3 NP reduced methane production by lactating dairy cows, but the dose of 2,500 mg/d reduced rumen acetate concentration, diet digestibility, and energy supply. Further research is warranted to determine the optimal dose and delivery method of the product. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Klevenhusen F.,ETH Zurich | Klevenhusen F.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna | Duval S.,Research Center for Animal Nutrition and Health | Zeitz J.O.,ETH Zurich | And 2 more authors.
Archives of Animal Nutrition | Year: 2011

Currently research on feed supplementation with natural compounds to improve energy and protein utilisation and to mitigate the greenhouse gas methane in ruminants is intensively pursued. Two compounds, diallyl disulphide (DADS), an important component of garlic oil, and lovastatin, an inhibitor of a key enzyme of methanogenic Archaea, were selected on the basis of their in vitro antimethanogenic potential. In three 23-day experimental runs, six sheep received hay and concentrate in a duplicate 3×3 Latin square design. The concentrate was either not supplemented or supplemented with either 4 g DADS or 80 mg lovastatin per kg of total dietary dry matter. There were no refusals of concentrate for any treatment. Respiratory measurements were conducted on experimental days 7/8 (Period 1) and days 17/18 (Period 2). Relative to the control, digestibility of neutral detergent fibre (NDF) tended to increase (p = 0.09) with DADS by 14%. This was associated with an increased (p = 0.07) body energy retention of the animals. Effects on nitrogen balance and ruminal fermentation traits were never significant. No influence of supplements or period was found on total daily CH 4 production which averaged at 28.6 g per sheep. However, across both periods the amount of CH 4 produced per kg NDF digested was lower (78%; p = 0.02) with DADS than without supplementation, and the lovastatin treatment ranged in between. In conclusion, the study demonstrated a certain potential of DADS to improve fibre digestion and body energy retention and to limit CH 4 formation in relation to digestible fibre intake, while lovastatin remained ineffective. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.


Klevenhusen F.,ETH Zurich | Zeitz J.O.,ETH Zurich | Duval S.,Research Center for Animal Nutrition and Health | Kreuzer M.,ETH Zurich | Soliva C.R.,ETH Zurich
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2011

One focus of current ruminant research is identification of feed supplementation strategies for mitigating enteric CH 4 production that do not impair rumen fermentation. Previous in vitro studies have indicated a potential anti-methanogenic activity of garlic (Allium sativum), garlic oil (GO), and its main compound diallyl disulfide (DADS). In our study, effects of supplementation of a standard hay and concentrate diet with 5g GO or 2g DADS/kg dietary dry matter (DM) were tested in sheep in a duplicated 3×3 Latin square design experiment with three 23d periods. Respiratory measurements were on d 17 and 18. Dietary supplementation with GO or DADS had no influence on the amount of CH 4 produced (27g/d). When rates of CH 4 production/kg OM digested were compared, DADS, but not GO, tended (P=0.09) to decrease CH 4 production compared to control. DM intake was not affected by GO or DADS, although concentrate intake was slightly decreased (P=0.10) with GO compared to control. DADS increased (P=0.02) digestibility of OM and aNDFom (P=0.03), as well as energy utilization (P=0.03) compared to control. Low palatability and lack of effect on either CH 4 mitigation or energy use efficiency indicate that a GO supplemented concentrate is of little relevance in practice. As DADS supplementation only tended to decrease CH 4 formation relative to OM digested, it too is limited use as a means of CH 4 mitigation. However, DADS supplementation improved digestibility and energy use efficiency. This article is part of the special issue entitled: Greenhouse Gases in Animal Agriculture - Finding a Balance between Food and Emissions, Guest Edited by T.A. McAllister, Section Guest Editors; K.A. Beauchemin, X. Hao, S. McGinn and Editor for Animal Feed Science and Technology, P.H. Robinson. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | CSIC - Experimental Station of El Zaidín, Research Center for Animal Nutrition and Health, DSM Nutritional Products Inc., Max Planck Institute for Terrestrial Microbiology and Auburn University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2016

Ruminants, such as cows, sheep, and goats, predominantly ferment in their rumen plant material to acetate, propionate, butyrate, CO2, and methane. Whereas the short fatty acids are absorbed and metabolized by the animals, the greenhouse gas methane escapes via eructation and breathing of the animals into the atmosphere. Along with the methane, up to 12% of the gross energy content of the feedstock is lost. Therefore, our recent report has raised interest in 3-nitrooxypropanol (3-NOP), which when added to the feed of ruminants in milligram amounts persistently reduces enteric methane emissions from livestock without apparent negative side effects [Hristov AN, et al. (2015) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 112(34):10663-10668]. We now show with the aid of in silico, in vitro, and in vivo experiments that 3-NOP specifically targets methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR). The nickel enzyme, which is only active when its Ni ion is in the +1 oxidation state, catalyzes the methane-forming step in the rumen fermentation. Molecular docking suggested that 3-NOP preferably binds into the active site of MCR in a pose that places its reducible nitrate group in electron transfer distance to Ni(I). With purified MCR, we found that 3-NOP indeed inactivates MCR at micromolar concentrations by oxidation of its active site Ni(I). Concomitantly, the nitrate ester is reduced to nitrite, which also inactivates MCR at micromolar concentrations by oxidation of Ni(I). Using pure cultures, 3-NOP is demonstrated to inhibit growth of methanogenic archaea at concentrations that do not affect the growth of nonmethanogenic bacteria in the rumen.


PubMed | Pennsylvania State University, Research Center for Animal Nutrition and Health, DSM Nutritional Products Inc. and Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of dairy science | Year: 2016

The objective of this crossover experiment was to investigate the effect of a methane inhibitor, 3-nitrooxypropanol (3NOP), on enteric methane emission, methane isotopic composition, and rumen fermentation and microbial profile in lactating dairy cows. The experiment involved 6 ruminally cannulated late-lactation Holstein cows assigned to 2 treatments: control and 3NOP (60 mg/kg of feed dry matter). Compared with the control, 3NOP decreased methane emission by 31% and increased hydrogen emission from undetectable to 1.33 g/d. Methane emissions per kilogram of dry matter intake and milk yield were also decreased 34% by 3NOP. Milk production and composition were not affected by 3NOP, except milk fat concentration was increased compared with the control. Concentrations of total VFA and propionate in ruminal fluid were not affected by treatment, but acetate concentration tended to be lower and acetate-to-propionate ratio was lower for 3NOP compared with the control. The 3NOP decreased the molar proportion of acetate and increase those of propionate, butyrate, valerate, and isovalerate. Deuterium-to-hydrogen ratios of methane and the abundance of (13)CH3D were similar between treatments. Compared with the control, minor (4) depletion in the (13)C/(12)C ratio was observed for 3NOP. Genus composition of methanogenic archaea (Methanobrevibacter, Methanosphaera, and Methanomicrobium) was not affected by 3NOP, but the proportion of methanogens in the total cell counts tended to be decreased by 3NOP. Prevotella spp., the predominant bacterial genus in ruminal contents in this experiment, was also not affected by 3NOP. Compared with the control, Ruminococcus and Clostridium spp. were decreased and Butyrivibrio spp. was increased by 3NOP. This experiment demonstrated that a substantial inhibition of enteric methane emission by 3NOP in dairy cows was accompanied with increased hydrogen emission and decreased acetate-to-propionate ratio; however, neither an effect on rumen archaeal community composition nor a significant change in the isotope composition of methane was observed.


Martin E.,Research Center for Animal Nutrition and Health | Martin E.,University of Lorraine | Verlhac Trichet V.,Research Center for Animal Nutrition and Health | Legrand-Frossi C.,University of Lorraine | Frippiat J.-P.,University of Lorraine
Fish and Shellfish Immunology | Year: 2012

Since mucosal surfaces represent major portals of entry for pathogens, its associated immune system is important to protect the organism. In this paper, we compared at the cellular and molecular levels intestinal leukocyte suspensions with their head kidney (HK) or peripheral blood (PBL) counterparts to highlight characteristics of intestinal immune functions in healthy rainbow trout. These studies show that intestinal phagocytes are less activated by yeast cells but when they are activated they can ingest as many yeast cells as their HK counterparts. A natural cytotoxic activity could be detected which is twice higher in intestinal than in HK leukocyte preparations. This natural cytotoxic activity is correlated with the expression of transcripts encoding the natural killer enhancement factor (NKEF). Intestinal leukocytes did not respond to an in vitro mitogenic stimulation performed under classical culture conditions. And finally, a high expression of CD8α transcripts was observed in gut leukocyte preparations, suggesting that the intestine could contain a high proportion of T cells expressing the αα homodimeric form of CD8. This kind of comparison on nonimmunized fish provides better knowledge on basal immune functions in the intestine to, analyze later on, immune responses induced by an antigenic stimulation. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

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