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Port-Saint-Louis-du-Rhône, France

Hristov A.N.,Pennsylvania State University | Oh J.,Pennsylvania State University | Giallongo F.,Pennsylvania State University | Frederick T.W.,Pennsylvania State University | And 8 more authors.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2015

A quarter of all anthropogenic methane emissions in the United States are from enteric fermentation, primarily from ruminant livestock. This study was undertaken to test the effect of a methane inhibitor, 3-nitrooxypropanol (3NOP), on enteric methane emission in lactating Holstein cows. An experiment was conducted using 48 cows in a randomized block design with a 2-wk covariate period and a 12-wk data collection period. Feed intake, milk production, and fiber digestibility were not affected by the inhibitor. Milk protein and lactose yields were increased by 3NOP. Rumen methane emission was linearly decreased by 3NOP, averaging about 30% lower than the control. Methane emission per unit of feed dry matter intake or per unit of energy-corrected milk were also about 30% less for the 3NOP-treated cows. On average, the body weight gain of 3NOP-treated cows was 80% greater than control cows during the 12-wk experiment. The experiment demonstrated that the methane inhibitor 3NOP, applied at 40 to 80 mg/kg feed dry matter, decreased methane emissions from high-producing dairy cows by 30% and increased body weight gain without negatively affecting feed intake or milk production and composition. The inhibitory effect persisted over 12 wk of treatment, thus offering an effective methane mitigation practice for the livestock industries.

Reynolds C.K.,University of Reading | Humphries D.J.,University of Reading | Kirton P.,University of Reading | Kindermann M.,DSM Nutritional Products Ltd | And 2 more authors.
Journal of dairy science | Year: 2014

The objective was to measure effects of 3-nitrooxypropanol (3 NP) on methane production of lactating dairy cows and any associated changes in digestion and energy and N metabolism. Six Holstein-Friesian dairy cows in mid-lactation were fed twice daily a total mixed ration with maize silage as the primary forage source. Cows received 1 of 3 treatments using an experimental design based on two 3 × 3 Latin squares with 5-wk periods. Treatments were a control placebo or 500 or 2,500 mg/d of 3 NP delivered directly into the rumen, via the rumen fistula, in equal doses before each feeding. Measurements of methane production and energy and N balance were obtained during wk 5 of each period using respiration calorimeters and digestion trials. Measurements of rumen pH (48 h) and postprandial volatile fatty acid and ammonia concentrations were made at the end of wk 4. Daily methane production was reduced by 3 NP, but the effects were not dose dependent (reductions of 6.6 and 9.8% for 500 and 2,500 mg/d, respectively). Dosing 3 NP had a transitory inhibitory effect on methane production, which may have been due to the product leaving the rumen in liquid outflow or through absorption or metabolism. Changes in rumen concentrations of volatile fatty acids indicated that the pattern of rumen fermentation was affected by both doses of the product, with a decrease in acetate:propionate ratio observed, but that acetate production was inhibited by the higher dose. Dry matter, organic matter, acid detergent fiber, N, and energy digestibility were reduced at the higher dose of the product. The decrease in digestible energy supply was not completely countered by the decrease in methane excretion such that metabolizable energy supply, metabolizable energy concentration of the diet, and net energy balance (milk plus tissue energy) were reduced by the highest dose of 3 NP. Similarly, the decrease in N digestibility at the higher dose of the product was associated with a decrease in body N balance that was not observed for the lower dose. Milk yield and milk fat concentration and fatty acid composition were not affected but milk protein concentration was greater for the higher dose of 3 NP. Twice-daily rumen dosing of 3 NP reduced methane production by lactating dairy cows, but the dose of 2,500 mg/d reduced rumen acetate concentration, diet digestibility, and energy supply. Further research is warranted to determine the optimal dose and delivery method of the product. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Klevenhusen F.,ETH Zurich | Klevenhusen F.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna | Duval S.,Research Center for Animal Nutrition and Health | Zeitz J.O.,ETH Zurich | And 2 more authors.
Archives of Animal Nutrition | Year: 2011

Currently research on feed supplementation with natural compounds to improve energy and protein utilisation and to mitigate the greenhouse gas methane in ruminants is intensively pursued. Two compounds, diallyl disulphide (DADS), an important component of garlic oil, and lovastatin, an inhibitor of a key enzyme of methanogenic Archaea, were selected on the basis of their in vitro antimethanogenic potential. In three 23-day experimental runs, six sheep received hay and concentrate in a duplicate 3×3 Latin square design. The concentrate was either not supplemented or supplemented with either 4 g DADS or 80 mg lovastatin per kg of total dietary dry matter. There were no refusals of concentrate for any treatment. Respiratory measurements were conducted on experimental days 7/8 (Period 1) and days 17/18 (Period 2). Relative to the control, digestibility of neutral detergent fibre (NDF) tended to increase (p = 0.09) with DADS by 14%. This was associated with an increased (p = 0.07) body energy retention of the animals. Effects on nitrogen balance and ruminal fermentation traits were never significant. No influence of supplements or period was found on total daily CH 4 production which averaged at 28.6 g per sheep. However, across both periods the amount of CH 4 produced per kg NDF digested was lower (78%; p = 0.02) with DADS than without supplementation, and the lovastatin treatment ranged in between. In conclusion, the study demonstrated a certain potential of DADS to improve fibre digestion and body energy retention and to limit CH 4 formation in relation to digestible fibre intake, while lovastatin remained ineffective. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.

Lopes J.C.,Pennsylvania State University | de Matos L.F.,Pennsylvania State University | Harper M.T.,Pennsylvania State University | Giallongo F.,Pennsylvania State University | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2016

The objective of this crossover experiment was to investigate the effect of a methane inhibitor, 3-nitrooxypropanol (3NOP), on enteric methane emission, methane isotopic composition, and rumen fermentation and microbial profile in lactating dairy cows. The experiment involved 6 ruminally cannulated late-lactation Holstein cows assigned to 2 treatments: control and 3NOP (60 mg/kg of feed dry matter). Compared with the control, 3NOP decreased methane emission by 31% and increased hydrogen emission from undetectable to 1.33 g/d. Methane emissions per kilogram of dry matter intake and milk yield were also decreased 34% by 3NOP. Milk production and composition were not affected by 3NOP, except milk fat concentration was increased compared with the control. Concentrations of total VFA and propionate in ruminal fluid were not affected by treatment, but acetate concentration tended to be lower and acetate-to-propionate ratio was lower for 3NOP compared with the control. The 3NOP decreased the molar proportion of acetate and increase those of propionate, butyrate, valerate, and isovalerate. Deuterium-to-hydrogen ratios of methane and the abundance of 13CH3D were similar between treatments. Compared with the control, minor (4‰) depletion in the 13C/12C ratio was observed for 3NOP. Genus composition of methanogenic archaea (Methanobrevibacter, Methanosphaera, and Methanomicrobium) was not affected by 3NOP, but the proportion of methanogens in the total cell counts tended to be decreased by 3NOP. Prevotella spp., the predominant bacterial genus in ruminal contents in this experiment, was also not affected by 3NOP. Compared with the control, Ruminococcus and Clostridium spp. were decreased and Butyrivibrio spp. was increased by 3NOP. This experiment demonstrated that a substantial inhibition of enteric methane emission by 3NOP in dairy cows was accompanied with increased hydrogen emission and decreased acetate-to-propionate ratio; however, neither an effect on rumen archaeal community composition nor a significant change in the isotope composition of methane was observed. © 2016 American Dairy Science Association.

Martinez-Fernandez G.,Estacion Experimental del Zaidin Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas | Abecia L.,Estacion Experimental del Zaidin Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas | Arco A.,Estacion Experimental del Zaidin Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas | Cantalapiedra-Hijar G.,Estacion Experimental del Zaidin Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2014

The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of feeding ethyl-3-nitrooxy propionate (E3NP) and 3-nitrooxypropanol (3NP), 2 recently developed compounds with potential antimethanogenic activity, in vitro and in vivo in nonlactating sheep on ruminal methane production, fermentation pattern, the abundance of major microbial groups, and feed degradability. Three experiments were conducted, 1 in vitro and 2 in vivo. The in vitro batch culture trial (experiment 1) tested 2 doses of E3NP and 3NP (40 and 80. μL/L), which showed a substantial reduction of methane production (up to 95%) without affecting concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFA). The 2 in vivo trials were conducted over 16 d (experiment 2) and 30 d (experiment 3) to study their effects in sheep. In experiment 2, 6 adult nonpregnant sheep, with permanent rumen cannula and fed alfalfa hay and oats (60:40), were treated with E3NP at 2 doses (50 and 500. mg/animal per day). After 7, 14, and 15 d of treatment, methane emissions were recorded in respiration chambers and rumen fluid samples were collected for VFA analysis and quantification of bacterial, protozoal, and archaeal numbers by real-time PCR. Methane production decreased by 29% compared with the control with the higher dose of E3NP on d 14 to 15. A decrease in the acetate:propionate ratio was observed without detrimental effects on dry matter intake. In experiment 3, 9 adult nonpregnant sheep, with permanent rumen cannula and fed with alfalfa hay and oats (60:40), were treated with E3NP or 3NP at one dose (100. mg/animal per day) over 30 d. On d 14 and d 29 to 30, methane emissions were recorded in respiration chambers. Rumen fluid samples were collected on d 29 and 30 for VFA analysis and quantification of bacterial, protozoal, and archaeal numbers by real-time PCR. In addition, on d 22 and 23, samples of oats and alfalfa hay were incubated in the rumen of sheep to determine dry matter ruminal degradation over 24 and 48. h, respectively; no effect was observed (78.6, 78.3, and 78.8% of alfalfa and 74.2, 74.0, and 70.6% of oats in control, E3NP, and 3NP groups, respectively). A reduction in methane production was observed for both additives at d 14 and d 29 to 30. In both treatments, the acetate:propionate ratio was significantly decreased. Likewise, total concentrations of the analyzed microbial groups in the rumen showed no difference among treatments and doses for both experiments. Both tested compounds showed promise as methane inhibitors in the rumen, with no detrimental effects on fermentation or intake, which would need to be confirmed in lactating animals. © 2014 American Dairy Science Association.

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