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PubMed | Research Center for Agrobiology and Pedology, University of Naples Federico II and Research Unit for Floriculture and Ornamental Species
Type: | Journal: Phytochemistry | Year: 2015

A chalconoid analogue, 1,3,5-benzentriol 2-[(2S,3R)-3-(3,4-dihydroxylphenyl)-2,3-dihydroxylpropyl], named filiferol (1), has been isolated and purified for the first time from the leaf basal tissues of the palm species Washingtonia filifera. The chemical structure of the isolated compound has been elucidated unambiguously by spectroscopic and chemical methods. Filiferol has been based on a flavonol structure with the reduction of the common flavonoid keto group to give an unprecedented methylene carbon on the three carbon chain. An analogous compound with S stereochemistry at C3 has been obtained as synthetic intermediate for developing an enantioselective synthesis of (2R,3S)-(+)-catechin. Even though 1 proved to be deprived of antifungal properties, it displays a very effective larvicidal activity against Red Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, an important pest affecting cultivated and ornamental palms. 1 has been isolated from leaf tissues of W. filifera, a species resistant to this pest, but this molecule seems instead undetectable in tissues of other palm species susceptible to the parasite. The presence of 1 could therefore account for W. filifera natural resistance to the attacks of the Red Palm Weevil (R. ferrugineus).


PubMed | University of Molise, Migliarino, Tuscany Regional Phytosanitary Service and Research Center for Agrobiology and Pedology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Bulletin of entomological research | Year: 2016

Invasive species are a significant threat to affected ecosystems, having serious environmental, economic and social impacts. The maritime pine bast scale, Matsucoccus feytaudi Ducasse (Hemiptera: Matsucoccidae), causes serious damage to Pinus pinaster forests in SE France, Corsica and Italy where it has been introduced. This study illustrates the adaptive management plan implemented in the Migliarino, San Rossore, Massaciuccoli Regional Natural Park in Tuscany, Italy, where M. feytaudi arrived in 2004, leading to the decay of local P. pinaster stands. The management programme, aimed at slowing the establishment and growth of M. feytaudi, was carried out in the main sector of the park, Tenuta di San Rossore, to retard the destruction of the P. pinaster coastal strip protecting the more internal woodland from sea salt and to allow replacement of P. pinaster trees with a more stable broad-leaved wood. The combined use of mass trapping and silvicultural interventions, applied in a targeted manner according to distribution maps of pest captures and damage, helped to delay forest destruction compared with a nearby unmanaged area of the park Tenuta di Tombolo. Although M. feytaudi continued to spread during the management period, the populations remained at low levels for 6 years, showing a marked increase in 2012. During this period, the P. pinaster stands were reduced from 320 to 249 ha. The final result of this ongoing gradual conversion process will be transformation of the P. pinaster forest into Holm oak woods and Mediterranean shrub land, while P. pinaster will survive as clusters or blocks of trees.


Valenzano D.,University of Bari | Martini P.,Instituto Regionale Per La Floricoltura Irf | Simoni S.,Research Center for Agrobiology and Pedology | De Lillo E.,University of Bari
Bulletin of Insectology | Year: 2016

Specimens of an unknown species of Phyllocoptes (Eriophyidae Phyllocoptinae) were collected from the shoots of three Eucalyptus species (Myrtaceae) in North-Western Italy. The mite, herein described as Phyllocoptes cacolyptae n. sp., was associated with the death of apical buds and the development of rearranged and deformed shoots causing yield loss in the quantity and quality of green cut foliage. The damage appeared to be more severe on Eucalyptus pulverulenta Sims cultivar “Baby Blue”, than on Eucalyptus cinerea F. Muell. ex Benth. and Eucalyptus ovata Labill. The mite was found also in the Department of Var (France). It is the first record of an eriophyoid mite on gum trees in the European and Mediterranean basin. Remarks are provided on the eriophyoid mites currently associated to Eucalyptus spp. © 2016, Universita degli Studi di Bologna, Department of Agroenvironmental Sciences and Technologies. All rights reserved.


PubMed | University of Siena and Research Center for Agrobiology and Pedology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of basic microbiology | Year: 2016

Beauveria bassiana is one of the most known entomopathogenic fungal species and its entomopathogenic mechanism involves several bioactive metabolites, mainly cuticle-degrading enzymes and toxic molecules, which are predicted to play a key role as virulence factors. In this study six Beauveria bassiana strains (B 13/I03, B 13/I11, B 13/I49, B 13/I57, B 13/I63, and B 13/I64) were assayed against Tenebrio molitor larvae. Enzymatic activity of total proteases and specifically Pr 1 and Pr 2, as well as the production of toxic compounds were investigated in each fungal strain. Toxins were detected both in vitro-in medium filtrates and mycelia-and in vivo-in Tenebrio molitor larvae infected by the fungal strains tested. B 13/I11 and B 13/I63 strains showed the most significant entomopathogenic activity against Tenebrio molitor larvae (cumulative mortality rate 100 and 97%, respectively; average survival time 5.85 and 6.74 days, respectively). A widely variable and fungal strain-dependent enzymatic activity of total proteases, Pr 1 and Pr 2 was found. Beauvericin, beauvericin A and bassianolide resulted the most prevalent toxins detected in the substrates analyzed. It has been found that an increase of beauvericin content in vivo resulted significantly correlated to a decrease of Tenebrio molitor larvae average survival time in entomopathogenic bioassay (inverse correlation). The involvement of beauvericin in B. bassiana entomopathogenic process is confirmed; in vitro analysis of cuticle degrading proteases activity and toxins production in relation to the methods adopted resulted insufficient for a rapid screening to determine the virulence of B. bassiana strains against Tenebrio molitor larvae.


Binazzi F.,Research Center for Agrobiology and Pedology | Pennacchio F.,Research Center for Agrobiology and Pedology | Peverieri G.S.,Research Center for Agrobiology and Pedology | Roversi P.F.,Research Center for Agrobiology and Pedology
Zootaxa | Year: 2016

The male and the oviparous female of Cinara palaestinensis Hille Ris Lambers, the Aleppo pine aphid, are recorded for the first time, in populations on Pinus halepensis in Italy. Description and illustrations are provided together with additional notes on taxonomy, ecology and distribution of the species. Copyright © 2016 Magnolia Press.


Binazzi F.,Research Center for Agrobiology and Pedology | Peverieri G.S.,Research Center for Agrobiology and Pedology | Roversi P.F.,Research Center for Agrobiology and Pedology
Redia | Year: 2015

The Authors report on the discovery in South Cyprus of the aphid Cinara (Cinara) cedri Mimeur collected on the endemic cedar, Cedrus brevifolia (Hooker fil.) Henry. This is the first record of the lacnid in Cyprus. The ecological aspects of the cedar and its interaction with the related aphid species are discubed. The Authors suggest the hypothesis that the aphid may be co-endemic with its host conifer since it shows significant morphological differences compared with specimens from other European regions. The question whether the Cyprus cedar aphid can be injurious or not to its host plant is debated as well. The exact taxonomic position of this lacnid is currently under investigation.


Binazzi F.,Research Center for Agrobiology and Pedology | Peverieri G.S.,Research Center for Agrobiology and Pedology | Benabai D.,Research Center for Agrobiology and Pedology | Roversi P.F.,Research Center for Agrobiology and Pedology
Redia | Year: 2015

In the Mediterranean basin the Pine Procebionary Moth (PPM), Thaumetopoea pityocampa is often responsible for damaging coniferous stands. The parthenogenetic thelytochous Ooencyrtus pityocampae because of its host location strategy and capacity to develop on alternative hosts plays a key role in the control of PPM. In the context of biological control, storage at low temperatures of parasitoids proved to be effective in improving their mab rearing for field release. Unfortunately, cold storage is often abociated with high mortality even above the freezing temperature. Therefore, the present work focused on O. pityocampae juvenile stages submitted to 10-days storage at 15°C and then transferred to 26°C and 30°C until adult hatching. Two different hatching temperatures were used to test the hypothesis whether the speeding of O. pityocampae development could affect its survival and synchronization of emergencies. After the treatment, adult emergence percentage, adult emergence time and synchronization of emergencies were evaluated. Results showed that all life stages succebfully survived the thermal regime. Nonetheleb, pupae because of their high emergence rates and synchronization of adult hatching appeared to be the best stage for short time storage.


Binazzi F.,Research Center for Agrobiology and Pedology | Peverieri G.S.,Research Center for Agrobiology and Pedology | Simoni S.,Research Center for Agrobiology and Pedology | Frosinini R.,Research Center for Agrobiology and Pedology | And 2 more authors.
Redia | Year: 2015

A simple and time-saving technique for an effective and continuous rearing of Graphosoma lineatum (L.) (Heteroptera Pentatomidae), an alternative host for Tribolcus spp. and Ooencyrtus spp. production, was set for entomological research and maintained for a long period. Insects were maintained in containers as rearing units; 100x35x35cm cages hosted adults; 40x30x30cm cages hosted nymphs. Graphosoma lineatum was fed on seeds of Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Anethum graveolens L. and Pimpinella anisum L. Moreover, potted young plants of F. vulgare were also used as additional food source. Water for insects and plants was provided by small automatic irrigation systems. When each colony cage reached the density of 100 adult couples, the number of oviposited batches was followed up for 12 weeks. Batches laid per cage were approximately one hundred per week. Therefore the overall weekly production of six adult cages was about 8400 eggs. This technique was plain and cost effective, allowing a constant egg production throughout the year.


Strangi A.,Research Center for Agrobiology and Pedology | Torrini G.,Research Center for Agrobiology and Pedology | Carletti B.,Research Center for Agrobiology and Pedology | Roversi P.F.,Research Center for Agrobiology and Pedology
Redia | Year: 2015

The pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Aphelenchida Parasitaphelenchidae) infects conifers, in particular pines, causing pine wilt disease. This nematode is considered a quarantine organism according to the EPPO and AQISQ guidelines. For this reason, several procedures for an affordable diagnostic test have been developed based on LAMP technique. In this work we shown how this technique behaved in presence of compounds that exert an inhibitory effect on DNA polymerases, a common problem that could be found in DNA preparations obtained from samples included in plant matrixes LAMP technique was found able to detect presence of its specific DNA target in almost all cases studied but we found that the addiction of polyphenolic compounds present in some woody matrixes to DNA preparations could affect significantly on the sensibility of diagnostic test, while resinous material had a leber influence on amplification.


PubMed | Research Center for Agrobiology and Pedology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Zootaxa | Year: 2016

The male and the oviparous female of Cinara palaestinensis Hille Ris Lambers, the Aleppo pine aphid, are recorded for the first time, in populations on Pinus halepensis in Italy. Description and illustrations are provided together with additional notes on taxonomy, ecology and distribution of the species.

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