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Habibi F.,Islamic Azad University | Normohamady G.,University of Tehran | Heidary Sharif abad H.,University of Tehran | Eivazi A.,Research Center for Agriculture | Majidi Heravan E.,Biotechnology Center
World Applied Sciences Journal | Year: 2012

The aim of this research was to determine the effect of cold stress levels on growing period, yield and some yield components of 15 bread wheat (triticum aestivum. L) Cultivar grown west Azerbaijan province in Iran. Experiment was carried out in split plot on randomized complete blocks design with three replications at two years 2008- 2010. Three levels of cold stress were planted with the first of 22 October and the others followed by 30 days intervals. 15 cultivars(five genotypes with types winter names Sayson, Martin, Gaskoghen, C-82-12, C-81-14, 5 genotype with type intermediate including Alvand, Mahdavi, Zarrin, Marvdasht, Tous and five genotypes with type spring names Shiraz, Pishtaz, M-79-7, M-81-13 and Kavir) were the sub plot and cold stress level were the main plot. According to the results of two years, cold stress had a significant effect on day to maturity (DM) grain number per head, plant height, 1000-kernel weight (1000-KW) and grain yield. The highest grain yield obtained from the first cold stress level, consequently the period of first cold stress level planting time and growth conditiones was suitable for tillering that the variety have enough time to tiller. Their tolerance to cold stress and could be concluded as optimum sowing period for maximum grain yield for the region. © IDOSI Publications, 2012. Source


Eslam B.P.,Research Center for Agriculture | Monirifar H.,Research Center for Agriculture | Ghassemi M.T.,University of Tabriz
Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry | Year: 2010

Seed and oil yields, their components, and the relationships among yield and related traits were measured in 5 spring safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) genotypes, Local Arak, Local Esfahan, Sina, KH23-57′, and Goldasht, under nonstressed and water deficit conditions imposed from late flowering (80% flowering) to maturity. The studies were conducted in loam soil at the Research Center for Agriculture and Natural Resources of East Azarbaijan, Iran (46°2′E, 37°58′N) during 3 successive years (2005-2007). According to the significant decrease in the number of seeds per capitulum, 1000-seeds weight, harvest index, and seed and oil yields under water deficit conditions, it seems that drought during the seed filling stage decreases seed and oil yields, mainly through their components. The number of capitula in a plant, a main yield component in safflower, was positively correlated with seed and oil yields. Positive correlations among harvest index, seed oil, and seed and oil yields were obtained. It seems that harvest index may be the most important characteristic for selecting spring safflower genotypes under normal and drought conditions. Results of path analysis revealed that spring safflower genotypes, by having higher seed oil and 1000-seeds weight values, could be cultivated in areas with late season droughts, and spring safflower genotype selection based on plant and capitulum height would be effective. Among the genotypes, Goldasht, with 1412 and 358 kg ha-1 seed and oil yields, respectively, showed the lowest values of yield. Other genotypes showed similar seed and oil yields, while Local Arak produced higher seed and oil yields. It was determined that Local Esfahan, Sina, KH23-57′, and especially Local Arak could be grown at Khosrowshahr and areas with similar climates (cold and semiarid, according to the Köppen climatic classification) under normal and late season drought conditions. © Tübİtak. Source


Estakhr A.,Shiraz University | Estakhr A.,Research Center for Agriculture | Heidari B.,Shiraz University | Dadkhodaie A.,Shiraz University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology | Year: 2016

Maize rough dwarf virus (MRDV) is the most important disease affecting maize growth in Iran. In the present study, the putative resistance capacity of 35 maize inbred lines against the causal agents of MRDVwas studied under natural field infection in 2010 and 2011. The viral transmitter was a plant hopper known as Laodelphax steriatellus. Early sowing provided suitable temperatures for vector propagation and transmission and therefore natural infection under field conditions. Sowing single rows of SC704 as vector spreader between every five rows of inbred lines caused adequate vector propagation and viral transmission. This shows that viral infection was sufficient and possible resistance was linked to viral resistance, not failure, in vector transmission. In principal component biplot, plant height vector had wide angles with the vectors for disease severity index and MRDV incidence that showed the negative association of plant height with MRDV disease. The percentage of natural infection to MRDV in susceptible control(SC704) was about 64%. The genotypes A679, K3547/3, K3545/6, K3653/2, and B84 were more susceptible to MRDV. Only the line K3640/3 had low disease incidence and severity and it can be considered as resistant for possible use in genetic studies. Results showed that an early sowing of maize in temperate regions increases the chance of transmitting viruses via their vector. © Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer 2016. Source


Vigl J.,Research Center for Agriculture | Brunner P.,Research Center for Agriculture
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2010

Fruit growers prefer apple trees that grow with moderate vigor, demand little labour and produce consistent and high quality yields. These requirements are best met by grafting plants on dwarfing apple rootstocks. The dwarfing rootstock M.9 holds the greatest promise for Italy's high density orchards. However, with some vigorous cultivars, this rootstock may not be dwarfing enough. Instead of choosing another rootstock type, an increase of the dwarfing effect can be achieved by modifying budding height and the planting depth of the rootstocks. The rootstock length exposed above the ground level was especially effective in influencing the dwarfing effect on the tree. Atrial was established in 2001 and continued until 2008 at the Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry Laimburg, to find the optimal budding height and planting depth of 'Fuji' and 'Golden Delicious' apple trees, grafted on M.9 apple rootstocks. Trees with the longer exposed rootstock shanks (high planted budding units) were smaller in comparison to deep planted ones. A reduction in fruit size and trunk cross sectional area was shown in higher planted and higher grafted apple trees. Overall, we can state an optimal combination is given when trees are planted at low depth and rootstock shanks are covered after planting with soil. INTRODUCTION New training systems ('slender spindle' and 'superspindle') were introduced that gained increased acceptance in Italy's apple fruit production areas. However, problems rose, due to the increased impacts of those systems either on plant or soil. Of concern was the distribution of the photosynthetically active radiation within high planting density orchards, in order to obtain high quality fruits. This is primarily achieved by coordinated tree vigour reducing practices. Probably the best working strategy for managing tree vigour is based upon an accurate rootstock selection (Sosna, 1999). T337 is the most planted M.9 rootstock clone in Italy's apple orchards (Mantinger and Stainer, 1996), but with vigorous cultivars it is still not dwarfing enough. Weaker growing rootstocks have reduced yield and lower fruit quality. Tree vigour may be influenced by pomological practices (Toorenaar, 1955) such as, budding height (Liebster, 1968; Pollet and Bockstaele, 1973; Van Rooyen, 1975; van Oosten, 1978) and planting depth (Rogers and Parry, 1968; Quamme et al. 1997). According to Sosna (1999) high budded trees showed a lower vigour, expressed by the increment of trunk cross sectional area and yielded better than lower budded trees. The objective was to evaluate the effect of budding height and planting depth of two different apple cultivars ('Fuji' and 'Golden Delicious') on tree vigour, yield and final fruit quality parameters in a seven year study. Source

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