Research Center Agraria Finca La Orden Valdesequera

Badajoz, Spain

Research Center Agraria Finca La Orden Valdesequera

Badajoz, Spain
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Vila-Vicosa C.,University of Porto | Vazquez F.M.,Research Center Agraria Finca La Orden Valdesequera | Mendes P.,University of Évora | Del Rio S.,University of León | And 3 more authors.
Plant Biosystems | Year: 2015

As relict traces of the Tertiary period, Quercus canariensis Willd. and the forests it forms comprise one of the most interesting woodlands, which prevails in southern Iberia with very particular edaphoclimatic envelopes. Combining phytosociological methodology with hierarchical cluster analyses, we aim to update the syntaxonomic scheme of the forests related to this species and the complex matrixes it forms with the hybrid species Quercus marianica C. Vicioso. We propose one new association from Portugal, in a total of four types of Mirbeck’s oak woodlands, in Southern Iberia. We conclude the necessity to maintain high standards on taxonomic and geobotanical surveys, with major biogeographic knowledge; it is indissociable from an accurate analysis and comprehension on the functional ecology and structure of these woodlands, regarding its dynamics. Therefore, their high conservation value, related to its relict status, supports the integration of these forests in Habitat 9240 (Annex B-I from Council Directive 92/43/EEC) in order to ensure its preservation. © 2015 Società Botanica Italiana.

Guerra M.E.,Research Center Agraria Finca La Orden Valdesequera | Wunsch A.,Research Center cnologia Agroalimentaria Of Aragon Cita | Lopez-Corrales M.,Research Center Agraria Finca La Orden Valdesequera | Rodrigo J.,Research Center cnologia Agroalimentaria Of Aragon Cita
Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science | Year: 2010

Flower emasculation is widely used in breeding programs for hybridization of fruit trees. In japanese plum (Prunus salicina), some genetic crosses made by emasculation have resulted in very low or lack of fruit set, but the causes leading to this situation are not clear. In this work, the influence of flower emasculation on fruit set was evaluated in four japanese plum-type cultivars by comparing cross-pollinations performed with and without emasculation. Fruit set and fruit drop in the crosses were characterized until harvest. To ascertain which factors in the reproductive process could be related to the lack of fruit set, compatibility was determined for each cross by the observation of pollen tube growth under the microscope and by polymerase chain reaction. Likewise, the stage of ovule development was observed under the microscope in emasculated and non-emasculated flowers. An analysis of the different pollination treatments and the study of the compatibility relationships helped to dismiss factors that intervene in the reproductive process and to identify flower emasculation as the cause of premature degeneration of ovules and its implication in determining subsequent fruit set.

Vila-Vicosa C.,University of Porto | Vazquez F.M.,Research Center Agraria Finca la Orden Valdesequera | Meireles C.,University of Évora | Pinto-Gomes C.,University of Porto
Lazaroa | Year: 2014

Vila-Viçosa, C., Vázquez, F.M., Meireles, C. & Pinto-gomes, C. Taxonomic peculiarities on marcescent Oaks (Quercus, Fagaceae) in southern Portugal. Lazaroa 35: 139-153 (2014). geobotanical studies on marcescent groves in southern Portugal have led to a clarification and updating of the taxonomical status of some Quercus species, after ambiguous and specific collections recorded through extensive fieldwork. We highlight the situation of Q. canariensis Willd. in Portugal, mainly referring to the hybrid-species Q. x marianica C. Vicioso, whose new status is proposed here. We also confirm and discuss the occurrence of two dubious taxa (Q. alpestris Boiss. and Q. estremadurensis O. schwarz) for Portuguese flora that are not listed or recognized in the main works, and we note some nomenclatural issues for the first (Q. alpestris). likewise, reference is made to another two nothospecies resulting from hybridization that have recently been recognized in this context, in addition to another four hybrids that are already known but still unfamiliar to the scientific community due to the controversial issue of hybridization within this genus. This study reveals the importance of taxonomical surveys for community ecology.

Macua J.I.,INTIA | Jimenez E.,INTIA | Daza C.,Research Center Agraria Finca la Orden Valdesequera | Gervas C.,AGRUCON | Lahoz I.,INTIA
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2013

Lycopene is a natural component of tomatoes characterised by its high colouring capacity and its biological and antioxidant activity. Different studies have shown that the lycopene content in the tomato depends fundamentally on genetic (vegetable material) and environmental factors (i.e. mineral nutrient supply, soil conditions, crop seasons, etc.) and also on the degree of ripeness. The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of genotype on production and on different parameters of quality, principally colour and lycopene content of the processing tomato in Navarre. The trials were conducted from 2010 to 2011 in the experimental farm of the Instituto Navarro de Tecnologías e Infraestructuras Agroalimentarias (INTIA) in Cadreita's locality, in the south of Navarre. Six cultivars of processing tomato were trialed in the field, 4 of which carried alleles whose expression cause an increase in the concentration of lycopene in the fruit; and the other two were used as controls. Fruit yield was measured as total biomass production, commercial marketable yield, and average fruit weight. The fruit quality parameters measured were: pH, °Brix, Hunter-scale color (a/b) and lycopene content. The most productive cultivars ('H-9036', 'H-9661' and 'H-9997') contained the lowest concentration of lycopene in the fruit. Cultivars with high lycopene content exceeded the two controls in red color purity, measured as a/b. 'Agraz 5' and 'ISI-24424' cultivars had the highest content of lycopene. 'H-9997' showed a slightly higher concentration of this antioxidant than the controls. In this study, the genetic influence was crucial to the content of lycopene in the fruit, but there are the traditional cultivars that farmers are commonly growing which have more intensity color.

Guerra M.E.,Research Center Agraria Finca La Orden Valdesequera | Lopez-Corrales M.,Research Center Agraria Finca La Orden Valdesequera | Wunsch A.,CSIC - Centro de Investigación y Tecnología Agroalimentaria
Euphytica | Year: 2012

The selection of cross-compatible cultivars is essential to ensure fruit set in self-incompatible species like Japanese plum and thus the S-genotype must be determined in order to establish incompatibility groups. In this study an improved Japanese plum S-genotyping method, based in polymerase chain reaction and capillary electrophoresis detection of intron polymorphisms of S-locus genes, S-RNase and SFB, has been assayed and validated in a wide sample of cultivars. This method allows a more precise determination of amplified fragment sizes and therefore a better differentiation of self-incompatibility alleles. The assayed methodology was proven effective in the detection of 13 different S-alleles of S-RNases and SFBs and was used to S-genotype 105 Japanese plum cultivars, 32 of which are described by first time in this work. Analysed cultivars were assigned into 11 incompatibility groups and two new incompatibility groups (XX and XXI) were identified, increasing to 21 the number of incompatibility groups described in this crop. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Morales-Rodriguez C.,Research Center Agraria Finca La Orden Valdesequera | Sanchez-Gonzalez A.,Servicio de Sanidad Vegetal | Conejo-Rodriguez Y.,Servicio de Sanidad Vegetal | Torres-Vila L.M.,Servicio de Sanidad Vegetal
Biocontrol Science and Technology | Year: 2015

The pathogenicity of Beauveria bassiana on Cerambyx welensii is first reported. Three native fungal isolates from Badajoz (Spain) were bioassayed on neonates using cork oak disks and LC50s were 1.16–1.76 × 105 and 0.30–0.61 × 105 spores/ml on the 7th and 14th day post-inoculation. The fungus is potentially a biocontrol agent of C. welensii. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.

Picon J.,Research Center Agraria Finca la Orden Valdesequera | Uriarte D.,Research Center Agraria Finca la Orden Valdesequera | Mancha L.A.,Research Center Agraria Finca la Orden Valdesequera | Blanco J.,Research Center Agraria Finca la Orden Valdesequera | Prieto M.H.,Research Center Agraria Finca la Orden Valdesequera
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012

The ability to estimate vineyard water use is important in semi-arid areas in order to improve crop water use through the establishment of scheduling irrigations adjusted to crop water needs. The development of a simple method to estimate the seasonal Kc for grapevine would be very useful from a practical standpoint. Water consumption of wine grapevines (Vitis vinifera 'Tempranillo') trained in vertical trellis was measured with a weighing lysimeter in the research station "Finca La Orden" (Badajoz, Spain) during the growing season 2008. Two grapevines were planted in a 2.67×2.25×1.50 m deep lysimeter in 2001. The row and vine spacing in the 1.8-ha vineyard were 2.50 and 1.20 m. The vines were drip irrigated with a 4 L h-1 emitters between grapevines. Crop coefficients (K c) were calculated using water consumption (ETc) measured with the lysimeter and reference crop evapotranspiration (ETo) obtained from a weather station located 100 m from the vineyard, and using the FAO- 56 Penman-Monteith Method (Allen et al., 1998). Leaf area index (LAI) and light interception (LI) were determined in the lysimeter plant along the growing season and were used as indicators of vegetative development. Water use from budbreak until the end of September was 758.24 mm. The maximum Kc occurred during September. Seasonal Kc followed a pattern similar to that of grapevine leaf area development. Vine water use and crop coefficient were linearly related to LAI (R2=0.93) and to LI (R 2=0.91). The relationship determined between Kc and several measures of canopy development could be useful in scheduling irrigations of vineyard in the Vegas Bajas del Guadiana and could be useful for managers to estimate their own individual vineyard Kc.

Guerra M.E.,Research Center Agraria Finca La Orden Valdesequera | Wunsch A.,CSIC - Centro de Investigación y Tecnología Agroalimentaria | Lopez-Corrales M.,Research Center Agraria Finca La Orden Valdesequera | Rodrigo J.,CSIC - Centro de Investigación y Tecnología Agroalimentaria
Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science | Year: 2011

Some japanese plum (Prunus salicina) cultivars are particularly prone to erratic fruit set showing very low or even null fruit set for reasons that are not clear. To ascertain the causes of lack of fruit set in some of them, different factors intervening in the reproductive process have been evaluated using flowers of three cultivars, Angeleno, Rubirosa, and Sweet August, from commercial orchards with records of very low fruit set in previous seasons and compared with a producing cultivar, Simka. Different cultivars coincident at flowering with the cultivars studied were evaluated as adequate pollenizers in each orchard. To determine which factors that intervene in the reproductive process could be related to the lack of fruit set, microscopic observations of pollen germination, pollen tube growth, pollen-pistil incompatibility, and ovule development were analyzed in flowers of different pollination treatments. Results allowed dismissal of pollen viability, pollen transfer, and pollen-pistil incompatibility as the cause of lack fruit set. However, the observation of ovule development revealed a high incidence of premature ovule degeneration on final fruit set in the three low-producing cultivars. The lack of fruit set in orchards with no apparent adverse environmental conditions is traditionally studied by analyzing the pollination process and the pollen-pistil incompatibility relationships, but the stage of development of the ovules is not usually considered. The approach used in this work may prove valuable to other species and situations of lack of fruit set, which could help to identify the causes for premature ovule degeneration.

Garrido I.,University of Extremadura | Llerena J.L.,University of Extremadura | Valdes Ma.E.,Instituto Tecnológico Agroalimentario | Mancha L.A.,Research Center Agraria Finca La Orden Valdesequera | And 3 more authors.
Journal International des Sciences de la Vigne et du Vin | Year: 2014

Aim: To compare the effect of water restriction and defoliation on the phenol contents and oxidant and antioxidant activities of Tempranillo grapes grown in the region of Extremadura, Spain. Methods and results: The results showed that at harvest, the water restriction treatment altered total foliar area, pH, and total soluble solid (TSS) and phenol contents but not polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. By contrast, the defoliation treatment did not affect TSS and pH, however, titratable acidity and phenol compounds were enhanced and PPO and SOD activities were decreased. Moreover, defoliation resulted in advanced grape ripening and reduced total foliar area. Conclusion: At harvest, water restriction led to alterations in the levels of peroxidation and peroxidase (POX) activity, without any effect on the other parameters. Defoliation induced a lowering of PPO and SOD activities and an increase in phenol content. Significance and impact of the study: Given the environmental characteristics of the Extremadura region, defoliation may be suitable and efficient for regulating Tempranillo grape PPO activity, which is œnologically relevant since it could lead to lower levels of phenol oxidation and hence prevent wine discolouration. © Vigne et Vin Publications Internationales (Bordeaux, France).

Torres-Vila L.M.,Servicio de Sanidad Vegetal | Rodriguez-Molina M.C.,Research Center Agraria Finca La Orden Valdesequera
Arthropod-Plant Interactions | Year: 2013

It is widely assumed that in the late nineteenth century Lobesia botrana Den. and Schiff. shifted its food source from a wild shrub (Daphne gnidium L.) to vine (Vitis vinifera L.). We explored if host range expansion reflects an evolutionary host shift, whereby the new moth-host association was linked to adaptive changes. The reaction norms of larval survival, adult weight and development time were investigated in L. botrana under field conditions. Two moth strains were established from vine and daphne, and reciprocal infestations with neonate larvae were performed on both host plants over the three larval generations. All three traits showed phenotypic plasticity and genetic variation, variation for plasticity being only detected in larval survival. Comparisons between hosts within strains showed that (1) larval survival was higher on vine in 9 of 12 cases, (2) adult weight was lower on vine only in the first generation and (3) development time was shorter on vine in first generation, shorter on daphne in third generation and displayed a sex-related response in the second generation. Comparisons between strains within hosts evidenced moth-host adaptation as larval survival increased when strains developed on its original host. There was also evidence of moth-parasitoid coevolution because parasitism level was strain-dependent. We hypothesize that higher larval survival on vine, similar adult weight on both hosts in summer generations and lower predation risk in vineyards, might be among the fitness-related factors explaining evolutionary host shift to and worldwide adaptive success on vine of L. botrana. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

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