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Quintanar de la Orden, Spain

Cruz-Hipolito H.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Rosario J.,Instituto Dominicano Of Investigaciones Agropecuarias Y Forestales | Ioli G.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Osuna M.D.,Research Center Finca la Orden Valdesequera | And 3 more authors.
Weed Science | Year: 2013

Tribenuron-methyl has been used widely fo. The last 15 yr to control white mustard in cereal crops from southern Spain. Since 2007, several cases of tribenuron-methyl resistance have been reported in wheat fields. Greenhouse and laboratory studies were conducted to characteriz. The mechanism of suspected tribenuron-methyl resistance in a white mustard biotype (hereafter AR16) from Malaga (southern Spain). Under greenhouse conditions. The dose (g ai ha -1) inhibiting fresh weight by 50% (ED50) was 5.20 and 0.57 fo. The AR16 and AR3 (known susceptible) biotypes, respectively. Wit. The use of 14C-tribenuron-methyl, absorption and translocation from treated leaves were similar between biotypes. Thin-layer chromatography indicated foliar metabolism of tribenuron-methyl was low in both R and S biotypes. Assays of the binding affinity of tribenuron-methyl on acetolactate synthase (ALS) revealed enzyme activity was reduced by 50% (I50 value) at 638.7 and 0.23 nM fo. The AR16 and AR3 biotypes, respectively. This resulted in 2,777-fold greater resistance to tribenuron-methyl fo. The AR16 compared to AR3 biotype. Sequencin. The gene encoding ALS, a proline/serine amino-acid substitution, was detected in position 197 of the A domain. Based on these results, it is concluded that tribenuron-methyl resistance I. The AR16 biotype is due to a target-site mutation I. The ALS enzyme, resulting in a lack of affinity to tribenuron-methyl. Nomenclature: White mustard, Sinapis alba L. © Weed Science Society of America. Source

Serradilla M.J.,Research Center Finca la Orden Valdesequera | Villalobos M.D.C.,University of Extremadura | Hernandez A.,University of Extremadura | Martin A.,University of Extremadura | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2013

The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of different controlled atmospheres, containing 3% O2+10% CO2, 5% O2+10% CO2 and 8% O2+10% CO2, on changes in microbial population of 'Ambrunés' sweet cherries throughout storage during 30days and subsequent shelf-life, as well as to identify the main genera of yeast, mould, lactic acid bacteria, Staphylococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Enterobacteriaceae spp., and coliforms. The results indicated that controlled atmospheres with 5% O2+10% CO2 and 8% O2+10% CO2 were highly effective to control the growth of mesophilic aerobic bacteria, psychrotrophs, Pseudomonas spp., yeasts, and moulds after 15days of storage, showing, in the case of yeasts and moulds, counts that ranged between <1 and 1.75logCFU/g. The genera of yeasts, moulds, lactic acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae spp., and coliforms identified were Aureobasidium spp., Penicillium spp., Leuconostoc spp., and Rahnella spp., respectively. In addition, the genera Staphylococcus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. were also identified. On the other hand, cherries of Stage 3 ripening presented the highest counts for all microbial groups. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Guerra M.E.,Research Center Finca la Orden Valdesequera | Rodrigo J.,University of Zaragoza
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2015

The reproductive behavior of Japanese plum has not been studied as in other Prunus species. Thus, a number of cultivars are particularly prone to erratic fruit set showing low yield for reasons that are not clear. Traditionally, the factors related to pollination have not been considered as causes of low yield in this crop, but in the last years lack of fruit set was recorded in different cultivars due to reproductive failure. Japanese plum, like other Prunus fruit tree species, is self-incompatible and requires cross pollination to ensure fruit set because this genus is unable to bear fruit parthenocarpically. Therefore, knowledge of pollination requirements of cultivars is essential to solve problems of low yield related to lack of pollination and for new orchard plantation plan with adequate proportion of pollinizers. The incompatibility relationships between Japanese plum cultivars have not been studied comprehensively until the last decade. An important amount of information has been revealed in this period, since a high number of commercial cultivars are currently available and new cultivars are being obtained from different breeding programs. In this article, the information available on the reproductive process in Japanese plum is reviewed, paying special attention to pollination factors and incompatibility relationships between cultivars. The S-RNase genotype of 222 cultivars compiled herein, allocated in 26 Incompatibility Groups, five of them described for the first time, will be valuable for fruit growers to choose adequate pollinators in commercial orchards, and for breeders to choose parental genotypes and select offsprings in breeding programs. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

Osuna M.D.,University of California at Davis | Okada M.,University of California at Davis | Ahmad R.,University of California at Davis | Fischer A.J.,University of California at Davis | And 2 more authors.
Weed Science | Year: 2011

Resistance to the thiocarbamates has been selected in early watergrass populations within the rice-growing region of California. To elucidate the processes contributing to the spread of resistance among rice fields, we characterized the genetic diversity and differentiation of thiobencarb-resistant (R) and thiobencarb-susceptible (S) populations across the Central Valley using microsatellite markers. A total of 406 individuals from 22 populations were genotyped using seven nuclear microsatellite primer pairs. Three analytical approaches (unshared allele, Shannon-Weaver, and allelic-phenotype statistics) were used to assess genetic diversity and differentiation in the allohexaploid species. Low levels of genetic variation were detected within populations, consistent with other highly selfing species, with S populations tending to be more diverse than R populations. FST values indicated that populations were genetically differentiated and that genetic differentiation was greater among S populations than R populations. Principal coordinate analysis generated two orthogonal axes that explained 88% of the genetic variance among early watergrass populations and differentiated populations by geographical region, which was associated with resistance phenotype. A Mantel test revealed that genetic distances between R populations were positively correlated with the geographical distances separating populations. Taken together, our results suggest that both short-and long-distance seed dispersal, and multiple local and independent evolutionary events, are involved in the spread of thiobencarb-resistant early watergrass across rice fields in the Sacramento Valley. In contrast, resistance was not detected in early watergrass populations in the San Joaquin Valley. © 2011 Weed Science Society of America. Source

Garcia-Jimenez W.L.,University of Extremadura | Fernandez-Llario P.,University of Extremadura | Benitez-Medina J.M.,University of Extremadura | Cerrato R.,University of Extremadura | And 10 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2013

Research on management of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in wildlife reservoir hosts is crucial for the implementation of effective disease control measures and the generation of practical bTB management recommendations. Among the management methods carried out on wild species to reduce bTB prevalence, the control of population density has been frequently used, with hunting pressure a practical strategy to reduce bTB prevalence. However, despite the number of articles about population density control in different bTB wildlife reservoirs, there is little information regarding the application of such measures on the Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa), which is considered the main bTB wildlife reservoir within Mediterranean ecosystems. This study shows the effects of a management measure leading to a radical decrease in wild boar population density at a large hunting estate in Central Spain, in order to assess the evolution of bTB prevalence in both the wild boar population and the sympatric fallow deer population.The evolution of bTB prevalence was monitored in populations of the two wild ungulate species over a 5-year study period (2007-2012). The results showed that bTB prevalence decreased in fallow deer, corresponding to an important reduction in the wild boar population. However, this decrease was not homogeneous: in the last season of study there was an increase in bTB-infected male animals. Moreover, bTB prevalence remained high in the remnant wild boar population. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

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