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Hernandez-Prado B.,Instituto Nacional Of Salud Publica | Hernandez-Prado B.,University of Washington | Kestler E.,Research Center Epidemiologica en Salud Sexual y Reproductiva | Diaz J.,Reprolatina | And 23 more authors.
Salud Publica de Mexico

To present the main results of the regional situation diagnosis and intervention plan developed in 2010 as part of the planning activities of the Mesoamerican Health System by the Working Group on Maternal, Reproductive and Neonatal Health. A group of experts and representatives from countries in the region (Central America and nine southern Mexican states) conducted an exhaustive review of available data to construct a situational analysis and a review of effective practices for improving maternal, reproductive and neonatal health. Finally, the group proposed a regional action plan, defining regional goals and specific interventions. The situational diagnosis suggests that, although there has been progress in the last 10 years, maternal and neonatal mortality rates are still un naceptably high in the region, with a substantial variability across countries. The group proposed as a regional goal the reduction of maternal and neonatal mortality in accordance with the Millenium Development Goals. The regional plan recommends specific maternal and neonatal health interventions emphasizing obstetric and neonatal emergency care, skilled birth attendance and family planning. The plan also includes a five year implementation strategy, along with training and evaluation strategies. The regional plan for maternal, neonatal and reproductive health has the potential to be successful, provided it is effectively implemented. Source

Gonzalez R.,Gorgas Memorial Institute | Sued O.,Pan American Health Organization | Suarez Conejero J.,Pan American Health Organization | Kestler E.,Research Center Epidemiologica en Salud Sexual y Reproductiva | And 3 more authors.

Background: Current educational strategies to integrate HIV care into primary medical care in Central America have traditionally targeted managers or higher-level officials, rather than local health care workers (HCWs). We developed a complementary online and on-site interactive training program to reach local HCWs at the primary care level in underserved communities. Methods: The training program targeted physicians, nurses, and community HCWs with limited access to traditional onsite training in Panama, Nicaragua, Dominican Republic, and Guatemala. The curriculum focused on principles of HIV care and health systems using a tutor-supported blended educational approach of an 8-week online component, a weeklong on-site problem-solving workshop, and individualized project-based interventions. Results: Of 258 initially active participants, 225 (225/258 = 87.2%) successfully completed the online component and the top 200 were invited to the on-site workshop. Of those, 170 (170/200 = 85%) attended the on-site workshop. In total, 142 completed all three components, including the project phase. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation instruments included knowledge assessments, reflexive essays, and acceptability surveys. The mean pre and post-essay scores demonstrating understanding of social determinants, health system organization, and integration of HIV services were 70% and 87.5%, respectively, with an increase in knowledge of 17.2% (p<0.001). The mean pre- and post-test scores evaluating clinical knowledge were 70.9% and 90.3%, respectively, with an increase in knowledge of 19.4% (p<0.001). A survey of Likert scale and open-ended questions demonstrated overwhelming participant satisfaction with course content, structure, and effectiveness in improving their HIV-related knowledge and skills. Conclusion: This innovative curriculum utilized technology to target HCWs with limited access to educational resources. Participants benefited from technical skills acquired through the process, and could continue working within their underserved communities while participating in the online component and then implement interventions that successfully converted theoretical knowledge to action to improve integration of HIV care into primary care. Source

Castellsague X.,Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology | Castellsague X.,CIBER ISCIII | Alemany L.,IDIBELL | Alemany L.,CIBER ISCIII | And 64 more authors.
Journal of the National Cancer Institute

Background: We conducted a large international study to estimate fractions of head and neck cancers (HNCs) attributable to human papillomavirus (HPV-AFs) using six HPV-related biomarkers of viral detection, transcription, and cellular transformation. Methods: Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cancer tissues of the oral cavity (OC), pharynx, and larynx were collected from pathology archives in 29 countries. All samples were subject to histopathological evaluation, DNA quality control, and HPV-DNA detection. Samples containing HPV-DNA were further subject to HPV E6∗I mRNA detection and to p16INK4a, pRb, p53, and Cyclin D1 immunohistochemistry. Final estimates of HPV-AFs were based on HPV-DNA, HPV E6∗I mRNA, and/or p16INK4a results. Results: A total of 3680 samples yielded valid results: 1374 pharyngeal, 1264 OC, and 1042 laryngeal cancers. HPV-AF estimates based on positivity for HPV-DNA, and for either HPV E6∗I mRNA or p16INK4a, were 22.4%, 4.4%, and 3.5% for cancers of the oropharynx, OC, and larynx, respectively, and 18.5%, 3.0%, and 1.5% when requiring simultaneous positivity for all three markers. HPV16 was largely the most common type. Estimates of HPV-AF in the oropharynx were highest in South America, Central and Eastern Europe, and Northern Europe, and lowest in Southern Europe. Women showed higher HPV-AFs than men for cancers of the oropharynx in Europe and for the larynx in Central-South America. Conclusions: HPV contribution to HNCs is substantial but highly heterogeneous by cancer site, region, and sex. This study, the largest exploring HPV attribution in HNCs, confirms the important role of HPVs in oropharyngeal cancer and drastically downplays the previously reported involvement of HPVs in the other HNCs. © 2016 The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com. Source

Alemany L.,Institute Catala dOncologia | Alemany L.,CIBER ISCIII | Alemany L.,Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology | Cubilla A.,National University of Asuncion | And 42 more authors.
European Urology

Background Invasive penile cancer is a rare disease with an approximately 22 000 cases per year. The incidence is higher in less developed countries, where penile cancer can account for up to 10% of cancers among men in some parts of Africa, South America, and Asia. Objective To describe the human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA prevalence, HPV type distribution, and detection of markers of viral activity (ie, E6∗I mRNA and p16INK4a) in a series of invasive penile cancers and penile high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HGSILs) from 25 countries. A total of 85 penile HGSILs and 1010 penile invasive cancers diagnosed from 1983 to 2011 were included. Design, setting, and participants After histopathologic evaluation of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples, HPV DNA detection and genotyping were performed using the SPF-10/DEIA/LiPA25 system, v.1 (Laboratory Biomedical Products, Rijswijk, The Netherlands). HPV DNA-positive cases were additionally tested for oncogene E6∗I mRNA and all cases for p16INK4a expression, a surrogate marker of oncogenic HPV activity. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis HPV DNA prevalence and type distributions were estimated. Results and limitations HPV DNA was detected in 33.1% of penile cancers (95% confidence interval [CI], 30.2-36.1) and in 87.1% of HGSILs (95% CI, 78.0-93.4). The warty-basaloid histologic subtype showed the highest HPV DNA prevalence. Among cancers, statistically significant differences in prevalence were observed only by geographic region and not by period or by age at diagnosis. HPV16 was the most frequent HPV type detected in both HPV-positive cancers (68.7%) and HGSILs (79.6%). HPV6 was the second most common type in invasive cancers (3.7%). The p16INK4a upregulation and mRNA detection in addition to HPV DNA positivity were observed in 69.3% of HGSILs, and at least one of these HPV activity markers was detected in 85.3% of cases. In penile cancers, these figures were 22.0% and 27.1%, respectively. Conclusions About a third to a fourth of penile cancers were related to HPV when considering HPV DNA detection alone or adding an HPV activity marker, respectively. The observed HPV type distribution reinforces the potential benefit of current and new HPV vaccines in the reduction of HPV-related penile neoplastic lesions. Patient summary About one-third to one-quarter of penile cancers were related to human papillomavirus (HPV). The observed HPV type distribution reinforces the potential benefit of current and new HPV vaccines to prevent HPV-related penile neoplastic lesions. © 2015 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Alemany L.,Cancer Epidemiology Research Program | Alemany L.,CIBER ISCIII | Saunier M.,Cancer Epidemiology Research Program | Tinoco L.,Hospital Oncologico | And 35 more authors.
European Journal of Cancer

This work describes the human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and the HPV type distribution in a large series of vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN) grades 2/3 and vaginal cancer worldwide. Methods We analysed 189 VAIN 2/3 and 408 invasive vaginal cancer cases collected from 31 countries from 1986 to 2011. After histopathological evaluation of sectioned formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples, HPV DNA detection and typing was performed using the SPF-10/DNA enzyme immunoassay (DEIA)/LiPA25 system (version 1). A subset of 146 vaginal cancers was tested for p16INK4a expression, a cellular surrogate marker for HPV transformation. Prevalence ratios were estimated using multivariate Poisson regression with robust variance. Results HPV DNA was detected in 74% (95% confidence interval (CI): 70-78%) of invasive cancers and in 96% (95% CI: 92-98%) of VAIN 2/3. Among cancers, the highest detection rates were observed in warty-basaloid subtype of squamous cell carcinomas, and in younger ages. Concerning the type-specific distribution, HPV16 was the most frequently type detected in both precancerous and cancerous lesions (59%). p16INK4a overexpression was found in 87% of HPV DNA positive vaginal cancer cases. Conclusions HPV was identified in a large proportion of invasive vaginal cancers and in almost all VAIN 2/3. HPV16 was the most common type detected. A large impact in the reduction of the burden of vaginal neoplastic lesions is expected among vaccinated cohorts. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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