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Tafalla C.,Research Center en Sanidad Animal | Bogwald J.,University of Tromso | Dalmo R.A.,University of Tromso
Fish and Shellfish Immunology | Year: 2013

Vaccination is the most adequate method to control infectious diseases that threaten the aquaculture industry worldwide. Unfortunately, vaccines are usually not able to confer protection on their own; especially those vaccines based on recombinant antigens or inactivated pathogens. Therefore, the use of adjuvants or immunostimulants is often necessary to increase the vaccine efficacy. Traditional adjuvants such as mineral oils are routinely used in different commercial bacterial vaccines available for fish; however, important side effects may occur with this type of adjuvants. A search for alternative molecules or certain combinations of them as adjuvants is desirable in order to increase animal welfare without reducing protection levels. Especially, combinations that may target specific cell responses and thus a specific pathogen, with no or minor side effects, should be explored. Despite this, the oil adjuvants currently used are quite friendlier with respect to side effects compared with the oil adjuvants previously used. The great lack of fish antiviral vaccines also evidences the importance of identifying optimal combinations of a vaccination strategy with the use of a targeting adjuvant, especially for the promising fish antiviral DNA vaccines. In this review, we summarise previous studies performed with both traditional adjuvants as well as the most promising new generation adjuvants such as ligands for Toll receptors or different cytokines, focussing mostly on their protective efficacies, and also on what is known concerning their effects on the fish immune system when delivered invivo. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Barcena J.,Research Center en Sanidad Animal
Sub-cellular biochemistry | Year: 2013

Virus-like particles (VLPs) are formed by viral structural proteins that, when overexpressed, spontaneously self-assemble into particles that are antigenically indistinguishable from infectious virus or subviral particles. VLPs are appealing as vaccine candidates because their inherent properties (i.e., virus-sized, multimeric antigens, highly organised and repetitive structure, not infectious) are suitable for the induction of safe and efficient humoral and cellular immune responses. VLP-based vaccines have already been licensed for human and veterinary use, and many more vaccine candidates are currently in late stages of evaluation. Moreover, the development of VLPs as platforms for foreign antigen display has further broadened their potential applicability both as prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines. This chapter provides an overview on the design and use of VLPs for the development of new generation vaccines. Source


Alejo A.,Research Center en Sanidad Animal | Tafalla C.,Research Center en Sanidad Animal
Developmental and Comparative Immunology | Year: 2011

Chemokines are chemoattractant cytokines defined by the presence of four conserved cysteine residues which in mammals can be divided into four subfamilies depending on the arrangement of the first two conserved cysteines in their sequence: CXC (α), CC (β), C and CX 3C classes.Evolutionarily, fish can be considered as an intermediate step between species which possess only innate immunity (invertebrates) and species with a fully developed acquired immune network such as mammals. Therefore, the functionality of their different immune cell types and molecules is sometimes also intermediate between innate and acquired responses. The first chemokine gene identified in a teleost was a rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) chemokine designated as CK1 in 1998. Since then, many different chemokine genes have been identified in several fish species, but their role in homeostasis and immune response remains largely unknown. Extensive genomic duplication events and the fact that chemokines evolve more quickly than other immune genes, make it very difficult to establish true orthologues between fish and mammalian chemokines that would help us with the ascription of immune roles. In this review, we describe the current state of knowledge of chemokine biology in teleost fish, focusing mainly on which genes have been identified so far and highlighting the most important aspects of their expression regulation, due to the great lack of functional information available for them. As the number of chemokine genes begins to close down for some teleost species, there is an important need for functional assays that may elucidate the role of each of these molecules within the fish immune response. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Ballesteros N.A.,CSIC - Biological Research Center | Rodriguez Saint-Jean S.,CSIC - Biological Research Center | Perez-Prieto S.I.,CSIC - Biological Research Center | Aquilino C.,Research Center en Sanidad Animal | Tafalla C.,Research Center en Sanidad Animal
Developmental and Comparative Immunology | Year: 2014

There are still many details of how intestinal immunity is regulated that remain unsolved in teleost. Although leukocytes are present all along the digestive tract, most immunological studies have focused on the posterior segments and the importance of each gut segment in terms of immunity has barely been addressed. In the current work, we have studied the regulation of several immune genes along five segments of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) digestive tract, comparing the effects observed in response to an infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) infection to those elicited by oral vaccination with a plasmid coding for viral VP2. We have focused on the regulation of several mucosal chemokines, chemokine receptors, the major histocompatibility complex II (MHC-II) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). Furthermore, the recruitment of IgM+ cells and CD3+ cells was evaluated along the different segments in response to IPNV by immunohistochemical techniques. Our results provide evidences that there is a differential regulation of these immune genes in response to both stimuli along the gut segments. Along with this chemokine and chemokine receptor induction, IPNV provoked a mobilization of IgM+ and IgT+ cells to the foregut and pyloric caeca region, and CD3+ cells to the pyloric caeca and midgut/hindgut regions. Our results will contribute to a better understanding of how mucosal immunity is orchestrated in the different gut segments of teleost. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Monso M.,University Pompeu Fabra | De La Torre B.G.,University Pompeu Fabra | Blanco E.,Research Center en Sanidad Animal | Moreno N.,Research Center en Sanidad Animal | Andreu D.,University Pompeu Fabra
Bioconjugate Chemistry | Year: 2013

Multimeric presentation, a well-proven way of enhancing peptide immunogenicity, has found substantial application in synthetic vaccine design. We have reported that a combination of four copies of a B-cell epitope with one of a T-cell epitope in a single branched construct results in a peptide vaccine conferring total protection against foot-and-mouth disease virus in swine, a natural host (Cubillos et al. (2008) J. Virol.82, 7223-7230). More recently, a downsized version of this prototype with only two copies of the B epitope has proven as effective as the tetravalent one in mice. Here we evaluate three approaches to bivalent platforms of this latter type, involving different chemistries for the conjugation of two B epitope peptides to a branching T epitope. Comparison of classical thioether, "reverse" thioether (Monsó et al. (2012) Org. Biomol. Chem. 10, 3116-3121) and thiol-ene conjugation chemistries in terms of synthetic efficiency clearly singles out the latter, maleimide-based strategy as most advantageous. We also examine how minor structural differences among the conjugates -including the N-or C-terminal attachment of the B epitope to the branching T epitope -bear on the immunogenicity of these vaccine candidates, with the maleimide-based conjugate again emerging as the most successful. © 2013 American Chemical Society. Source

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