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Cruz-Lopez M.,Hospital Of Especialidades | Lopez-Ridaura R.,Research Center en salud Poblacional | Hernandez-Avila M.,Research Center en salud Poblacional | Cortina B.,Research Center en salud Poblacional | And 2 more authors.
Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental | Year: 2010

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is a main public health problem in the Mexican population. It is characterized by insulin resistance in peripheral tissues and a relative deficiency in the pancreatic β-cell functions. Diverse single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the IRS1 gene have been associated with insulin resistance and T2D risk. The aim of this study was to identify the association between known IRS1 polymorphisms (Pro512Ala, Asn1137Asp, Gly972Arg, and Arg158Pro) in a sample of diabetic patients compared with healthy controls selected from Mexico's 2000 National Health Survey, both with normal body mass index (BMI). We identified 444 diabetes cases that were age matched with the same number of controls. Genotypic and allelic frequencies were evaluated, and conditional logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between the SNPs and diabetes risk. Of the 4 SNPs studied, only Gly972Arg showed significant differences between cases and controls, with allele frequency of 2.6% in controls as compared with 7.9% in cases. Subjects with at least 1 copy of the Gly972Arg polymorphism of the IRS1 gene showed a greater risk for diabetes, with a crude odds ratio of 3.26 (95% confidence interval, 2.00-5.33); after adjusting for BMI, age, family history of T2D, and sex, the odds ratio was 2.91 (95% confidence interval, 1.73-4.90). Our results suggest the participation of Gly972Arg polymorphism of IRS1 in the genetic susceptibility to TD2 in Mexican population. The restriction of including only participants with normal BMI might increase the power to detect genetic determinants of T2D.


Garcia-Frapolli E.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Schilmann A.,Research Center en Salud Poblacional | Berrueta V.M.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Berrueta V.M.,Grupo Mexico | And 8 more authors.
Ecological Economics | Year: 2010

Half of the world population relies on biomass for cooking, with very significant health as well as climate change impacts. Improved cookstoves have been disseminated as an alternative to reduce these impacts. However, few detailed studies about the economic benefits of improved cookstoves (ICS) interventions, including environmental and health co-benefits, exist to date. In this paper we perform a comprehensive economic evaluation of a dissemination program of ICS in rural Mexico. The resulting cost-benefit analysis (CBA) of the Patsari improved cookstove is presented, utilizing estimation of direct costs and benefits, including fuelwood savings, income generation, health impacts, environmental conservation, and reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. The analysis is based on comprehensive data obtained through monitoring studies carried out in the Study Area from 2003 to the present. Results show that Patsari cookstoves represent a viable economic option for improving living conditions of the poorest inhabitants of rural Mexico, with benefit/cost ratios estimated between 11.4:1 and 9:1. The largest contributors to economic benefits stemmed from fuelwood savings and reductions in health impacts, which constituted 53% and 28% of the overall benefit, respectively. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | Institute Evaluacion Tecnologica en Salud IETS, University of the Frontier, Higher University of San Andrés, Research Center en Salud Poblacional and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Revista panamericana de salud publica = Pan American journal of public health | Year: 2016

Estimate smoking-attributable direct medical costs in Latin American health systems.A microsimulation model was used to quantify financial impact of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pneumonia, lung cancer, and nine other neoplasms. A systematic search for epidemiological data and event costs was carried out. The model was calibrated and validated for Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, and Peru, countries that account for 78% of Latin Americas population; the results were then extrapolated to the regional level.Every year, smoking is responsible for 33 576 billion dollars in direct costs to health systems. This amounts to 0.7% of the regions gross domestic product (GDP) and 8.3% of its health budget. Cardiovascular disease, COPD, and cancer were responsible for 30.3%, 26.9%, and 23.7% of these expenditures, respectively. Smoking-attributable costs ranged from 0.4% (Mexico and Peru) to 0.9% (Chile) of GDP and from 5.2% (Brazil) to 12.7% (Bolivia) of health expenditures. In the region, tax revenues from cigarette sales barely cover 37% of smoking-attributable health expenditures (8.1% in Bolivia and 67.3% in Argentina).Smoking is responsible for a significant proportion of health spending in Latin America, and tax revenues from cigarette sales are far from covering it. The regions countries should seriously consider stronger measures, such as an increase in tobacco taxes.


Galvan-Portillo M.,Research Center en Salud Poblacional | Torres-Sanchez L.,Research Center en Salud Poblacional | Hernandez-Ramirez R.U.,Research Center en Salud Poblacional | Anaya-Loyola M.A.,Autonomous University of Queretaro
Salud Publica de Mexico | Year: 2011

Objective: To evaluate the reproducibility and validity of folate intake (FI) estimated from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), taking into account the retention factor (RF) associated with meal preparation processes. Material and Methods: A total of 497 healthy adult participants were interviewed with a FFQ. A second interview was performed one year later of a sample of 100 randomly selected individuals who had not modified their diet during the previous year. In addition, serum folate (SF) concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay to evaluate the validity of FI. Results: Reproducibility of IF was 0.36 and 0.34 for folate without FR and with FR, respectively. SF concentration significantly correlated with FI (0.18 with RF; 0.21 without RF, p<0.05). Conclusions: Incorporating the folate RF in estimates of FI does not improve the reproducibility and validity of those estimates.


de la Vara-Salazar E.,Research Center en Salud Poblacional | Suarez-Lopez L.,Research Center en Salud Poblacional | Angeles-Llerenas A.,Research Center en Salud Poblacional | Torres-Mejia G.,Research Center en Salud Poblacional | Lazcano-Ponce E.,Research Center en Salud Poblacional
Salud Publica de Mexico | Year: 2011

Breast cancer has become an important health risk for women worldwide. The important growth of breast cancer-related deaths within those caused by malign tumors throughout the globe went past the 460 000 in 2008, becoming the deadliest disease worldwide. Demographic changes and lifestyles have modified the population exposure to risk factors of maladies such as cancer, and since 1980 breast cancer mortality has remained on an upward tendency, surpassing cervical cancer in 2006. After analyzing mortality rates along 30 years in Mexican women 25 or more years old, differences by state and age-groups are apparent. Although this cause of death has been associated with a highest regional development, some changes are taking place, since the number of deaths is also growing among women of less-developed regions in the country, as showed in this work. Mexico faces an evident challenge regarding breast cancer. Our country requires to join efforts and implement programs aimed at teaching self-care of health among the population, promoting healthier lifestyles, and reshaping our diagnostic infrastructure to achieve earlier detection and provide proper treatment.


Campos-Nonato I.,Research Center en Nutricion y Salud | Hernandez-Barrera L.,Research Center en Nutricion y Salud | Rojas-Martinez R.,Research Center en Salud Poblacional | Pedroza-Tobias A.,Research Center en Nutricion y Salud | And 2 more authors.
Salud Publica de Mexico | Year: 2013

Objective. The present study aims to describe the prevalence, distribution and trends of hypertension (HT) in Mexican adults =20 years, and to describe the prevalence of early diagnosis and treatment of HT. Materials and methods. A total of 10 898 adults were considered. The measurement of blood pressure was performed following the procedures recommended by the American Heart Association. An adult was considered, hypertensive when he met the diagnostic criteria of JNC-7. Results. The prevalence of HT was 31.5%, of which 47.3% were unaware of their condition. Pharmacological treatment was not associated with a higher percentage of subjects under control. Conclusion. Prevalences from 2000, 2006 and 2012 suggest that there is a stabilization. A health problem of this magnitude requires better diagnosis, care and training of the medical sector so that appropriate treatments are prescribed and HT control can be enhanced.


Villalobos-Hernandez A.,Research Center en Salud Poblacional | Campero L.,Research Center en Salud Poblacional | Suarez-Lopez L.,Research Center en Salud Poblacional | Atienzo E.E.,University of Sheffield | And 2 more authors.
Salud Publica de Mexico | Year: 2015

Objective. To characterize female adolescents who have been pregnant, and to analyze the association between adolescent pregnancy and educational gaps. Materials and methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted. Data come from the Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición (Ensanut 2012), a Mexican representative survey. The set of data used is related to sociodemographic and reproductive characteristics from 1 790 women from 12 to 19 years who had begun their sexual life and had a pregnancy record. Three statistical models were adjusted to observe the association between variables. The dependent variable of the first model was the condition of previous pregnancy, the second to be pregnant at the time of data collection, and the third, educational gap. Results. A 74.9% of the adolescents with history of pregnancy has educational gap. To have the condition of previous pregnancy is associated with living with sexual partner (OR=8.4), educational gap (OR=2.4), low socioeconomical level (OR=2.0) and school assistance (OR=0.5). To be pregnant at the time of data collection has related only to living with sexual partner (OR=9.4). The educational gap shows an association with having more than one pregnancy (OR=2.4), live with sexual partner (OR=1.6), low socioeconomical level (OR=1.8), and school assistance as protective factor (OR=0.3). Conclusion. It is necessary to implement effective and efficient educational public politics in order to decrease educational gap. At the same time, to guarantee and improve sexual education in the school system to prevent adolescent pregnancy.


Tanner A.,University of South Carolina | Blake C.E.,University of South Carolina | Thrasher J.F.,University of South Carolina | Thrasher J.F.,Research Center en Salud Poblacional
Ecology of Food and Nutrition | Year: 2012

News media are a primary source of nutrition information for the general public. Beverages are a key product category implicated in the obesity epidemic, but it is unclear how recommendations for healthy beverage consumption patterns are communicated by the news media. This study evaluated the health content of beverage-related news reports on national television newscasts from 2000 to 2008. News reports were coded to assess topic, source attribution, and confusion. Analysis revealed that beverage nutrition messages focused primarily on educating consumers or reports of prevalence. Conflicting or confusing nutrition recommendations were discussed in nearly one in three reports (29%). News reports most often discussed beverage consumption in terms of individual health decision-making, indicating a significant lack of emphasis on public health policy. The findings provide important insights into health-related beverage messages being disseminated by television news outlets and suggest avenues for nutrition researchers and practitioners to engage the media regarding nutrition policy issues. © 2012 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Goniewicz M.L.,University of California at San Francisco | Goniewicz M.L.,University of Silesia | Eisner M.D.,University of California at San Francisco | Lazcano-ponce E.,Research Center en Salud Poblacional | And 6 more authors.
Nicotine and Tobacco Research | Year: 2011

Objectives: Cotinine is the most widely useds an overlap in cotinine levels when comparing light or occasional smokers versus heavily ex biomarker to distinguish active versus passive smoking. However, there iposed passive smokers. 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) is a tobacco-specific nitrosamine measurable in urine with a much longer half-life than cotinine. The aim of the study was to determine optimal cutoff points to discriminate active versus passive smokers and to compare sensitivity and specificity for the use of cotinine, NNAL, and the ratio of the NNAL/cotinine in urine. Methods: Cotinine and NNAL were measured in urine of 373 active smokers and 228 passive smokers. Results: Geometric mean cotinine levels were 2.03 ng/ml (interquartile interval: 0.43-8.60) and 1,043 ng/ml (658-2,251) and NNAL levels were 5.80 pg/ml (2.28-15.4) and 165 pg/ml (90.8-360) pg/ml in passive and active smokers, respectively. NNAL/cotinine ratio in urine was significantly higher for passive smokers when compared with active smokers (2.85 vs. 0.16, p < .01). The receiver operating characteristics analysis determined optimal cutoff points to discriminate passive versus active smokers: 31.5 ng/ml for cotinine (sensitivity: 97.1% and specificity: 93.9%), 47.3 pg/ml for NNAL (87.4% and 96.5%), and 0.74 × 10 -3 for NNAL/cotinine ratio (97.3% and 87.3%). Conclusions: Both urine cotinine and NNAL are sensitive and specific biomarkers for discriminating the source of tobacco smoke exposure. Cotinine is the best overall discriminator when biomarkers are measured while a person has ongoing exposure to tobacco smoke. NNAL because of its long half-life would be particularly useful when there is a delay between exposure and biomarker measurement. The NNAL/cotinine ratio provides similar sensitivity but poorer specificity at discriminating passive versus active smokers when compared with NNAL alone. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved.


PubMed | University of Sonora, Research Center en Salud Poblacional and Autonomous University of Tamaulipas
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nutricion hospitalaria | Year: 2015

obesity in childhood is predictive of obesity in adulthood and it is associated with adverse health effect apparent since childhood; however, the joint assessment of obesity and adverse events among children in clinical settings is unusual.to assess the association of overweight and obesity, abdominal obesity, and excess body fat with systolic [SBP] and diastolic [DBP] blood pressure, lipid profile and glucose levels; and to identify the best anthropometric indicator of such events.we conducted a cross-sectional study in a sample of 412 schoolchildren. The presence of overweight and obesity, abdominal obesity and excess body fat was determined among all participants; levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, high and low density lipoproteins, and glucose were measured in a subsample (n = 133). The associations of interest were assessed using adjusted linear and logistic regression models.33% of the children were overweight or obese. Overall, overweight, obesity, abdominal obesity, and excess body fat were associated with elevated SBP and DBP and with a lipid profile and glucose levels that could indicate health risks among these children. Overweight and obesity were the best predictors of such events.among these school-aged children, we observed that obesity was associated with high odds of having adverse health outcomes such as high blood pressure, lipids and glucose. Such adverse events can be predicted by the presence of obesity measured by BMI, which is a noninvasive, inexpensive and easy to implement measure.

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