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Schluter A.,Institute Dinvestigacio Biomedica Of Bellvitge Idibell | Schluter A.,University of Barcelona | Schluter A.,Research Center en Red sobre Enfermedades Raras | Ruiz-Trillo I.,University of Barcelona | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Background: The origin of eukaryotes remains a fundamental question in evolutionary biology. Although it is clear that eukaryotic genomes are a chimeric combination of genes of eubacterial and archaebacterial ancestry, the specific ancestry of most eubacterial genes is still unknown. The growing availability of microbial genomes offers the possibility of analyzing the ancestry of eukaryotic genomes and testing previous hypotheses on their origins. Methodology/Principal Findings: Here, we have applied a phylogenomic analysis to investigate a possible contribution of the Myxococcales to the first eukaryotes. We conducted a conservative pipeline with homologous sequence searches against a genomic sampling of 40 eukaryotic and 357 prokaryotic genomes. The phylogenetic reconstruction showed that several eukaryotic proteins traced to Myxococcales. Most of these proteins were associated with mitochondrial lipid intermediate pathways, particularly enzymes generating reducing equivalents with pivotal roles in fatty acid β-oxidation metabolism. Our data suggest that myxococcal species with the ability to oxidize fatty acids transferred several genes to eubacteria that eventually gave rise to the mitochondrial ancestor. Later, the eukaryotic nucleocytoplasmic lineage acquired those metabolic genes through endosymbiotic gene transfer. Conclusions/Significance: Our results support a prokaryotic origin, different from α-proteobacteria, for several mitochondrial genes. Our data reinforce a fluid prokaryotic chromosome model in which the mitochondrion appears to be an important entry point for myxococcal genes to enter eukaryotes. © 2011 Schlüter et al. Source


Schluter A.,Neurometabolic Diseases Laboratory And Institute Of Neuropatologia Of Bellvitge Idibell | Schluter A.,Research Center en Red sobre Enfermedades Raras | Espinosa L.,Institute Municipal dInvestigacions Mediques Hospital del Mar | Fourcade S.,Neurometabolic Diseases Laboratory And Institute Of Neuropatologia Of Bellvitge Idibell | And 21 more authors.
Human Molecular Genetics | Year: 2012

X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is an inherited disorder characterized by axonopathy and demyelination in the central nervous system and adrenal insufficiency. Main X-ALD phenotypes are: (i) an adult adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN) with axonopathy in spinal cords, (ii) cerebral AMN with brain demyelination (cAMN) and (iii) a childhood variant, cALD, characterized by severe cerebral demyelination. Loss of function of the ABCD1 peroxisomal fatty acid transporter and subsequent accumulation of very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) are the common culprits to all forms of X-ALD, an aberrant microglial activation accounts for the cerebral forms, whereas inflammation allegedly plays no role in AMN. How VLCFA accumulation leads to neurodegeneration and what factors account for the dissimilar clinical outcomes and prognosis of X-ALD variants remain elusive. To gain insights into these questions, we undertook a transcriptomic approach followed by a functional-enrichment analysis in spinal cords of the animal model of AMN, the Abcd1 - null mice, and in normal-appearing white matter of cAMN and cALD patients. We report that the mouse model shares with cAMN and cALD a common signature comprising dysregulation of oxidative phosphorylation, adipocytokine and insulin signaling pathways, and protein synthesis. Functional validation by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blots and assays in spinal cord organotypic cultures confirmed the interplay of these pathways through IkB kinase, being VLCFA in excess a causal, upstream trigger promoting the altered signature. We conclude that X-ALD is, in all its variants, a metabolic/inflammatory syndrome, which may offer new targets in X-ALD therapeutics. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press. Source

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