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Lei J.,German Cancer Research Center | Rudolph A.,German Cancer Research Center | Moysich K.B.,Roswell Park Cancer Institute | Behrens S.,German Cancer Research Center | And 102 more authors.
Human Genetics | Year: 2016

Immunosuppression plays a pivotal role in assisting tumors to evade immune destruction and promoting tumor development. We hypothesized that genetic variation in the immunosuppression pathway genes may be implicated in breast cancer tumorigenesis. We included 42,510 female breast cancer cases and 40,577 controls of European ancestry from 37 studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (2015) with available genotype data for 3595 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 133 candidate genes. Associations between genotyped SNPs and overall breast cancer risk, and secondarily according to estrogen receptor (ER) status, were assessed using multiple logistic regression models. Gene-level associations were assessed based on principal component analysis. Gene expression analyses were conducted using RNA sequencing level 3 data from The Cancer Genome Atlas for 989 breast tumor samples and 113 matched normal tissue samples. SNP rs1905339 (A>G) in the STAT3 region was associated with an increased breast cancer risk (per allele odds ratio 1.05, 95 % confidence interval 1.03–1.08; p value = 1.4 × 10−6). The association did not differ significantly by ER status. On the gene level, in addition to TGFBR2 and CCND1, IL5 and GM-CSF showed the strongest associations with overall breast cancer risk (p value = 1.0 × 10−3 and 7.0 × 10−3, respectively). Furthermore, STAT3 and IL5 but not GM-CSF were differentially expressed between breast tumor tissue and normal tissue (p value = 2.5 × 10−3, 4.5 × 10−4 and 0.63, respectively). Our data provide evidence that the immunosuppression pathway genes STAT3,IL5, and GM-CSF may be novel susceptibility loci for breast cancer in women of European ancestry. © 2015, The Author(s).

Kabisch M.,German Cancer Research Center | Bermejo J.L.,University of Heidelberg | Dunnebier T.,German Cancer Research Center | Ying S.,German Cancer Research Center | And 177 more authors.
Carcinogenesis | Year: 2014

The chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) plays a pivotal role in the regulation of cell division. Therefore, inherited CPC variability could influence tumor development. The present candidate gene approach investigates the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encoding key CPC components and breast cancer risk. Fifteen SNPs in four CPC genes (INCENP, AURKB, BIRC5 and CDCA8) were genotyped in 88 911 European women from 39 case-control studies of the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Possible associations were investigated in fixedeffects meta-analyses. The synonymous SNP rs1675126 in exon 7 of INCENP was associated with overall breast cancer risk [per A allele odds ratio (OR) 0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92-0.98, P = 0.007] and particularly with estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast tumors (per A allele OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.83-0.95, P = 0.0005). SNPs not directly genotyped were imputed based on 1000 Genomes. The SNPs rs1047739 in the 3′ untranslated region and rs144045115 downstream of INCENP showed the strongest association signals for overall (per T allele OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.00-1.06, P = 0.0009) and ER-negative breast cancer risk (per A allele OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.02-1.10, P = 0.0002). Two genotyped SNPs in BIRC5 were associated with familial breast cancer risk (top SNP rs2071214: per G allele OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.04-1.21, P = 0.002). The data suggest that INCENP in the CPC pathway contributes to ER-negative breast cancer susceptibility in the European population. In spite of a modest contribution of CPC-inherited variants to the total burden of sporadic and familial breast cancer, their potential as novel targets for breast cancer treatment should be further investigated. © The Author 2015.

Shi J.,Vanderbilt University | Zhang Y.,Vanderbilt University | Zheng W.,Vanderbilt University | Michailidou K.,University of Cambridge | And 146 more authors.
International Journal of Cancer | Year: 2016

Previous genome-wide association studies among women of European ancestry identified two independent breast cancer susceptibility loci represented by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs13281615 and rs11780156 at 8q24. A fine-mapping study across 2.06 Mb (chr8:127,561,724–129,624,067, hg19) in 55,540 breast cancer cases and 51,168 controls within the Breast Cancer Association Consortium was conducted. Three additional independent association signals in women of European ancestry, represented by rs35961416 (OR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.93–0.97, conditional p = 5.8 × 10−6), rs7815245 (OR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.91–0.96, conditional p = 1.1 × 10−6) and rs2033101 (OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.02–1.07, conditional p = 1.1 × 10−4) were found. Integrative analysis using functional genomic data from the Roadmap Epigenomics, the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements project, the Cancer Genome Atlas and other public resources implied that SNPs rs7815245 in Signal 3, and rs1121948 in Signal 5 (in linkage disequilibrium with rs11780156, r2 = 0.77), were putatively functional variants for two of the five independent association signals. The results highlighted multiple 8q24 variants associated with breast cancer susceptibility in women of European ancestry. © 2016 UICC

Borras E.,Hospitalet Of Llobregat | Pineda M.,Hospitalet Of Llobregat | Blanco I.,Hospital Germans Trias I Pujol | Jewett E.M.,University of Michigan | And 22 more authors.
Cancer Research | Year: 2010

The variants c.306+5G>A and c.1865T>A (p.Leu622His) of the DNA repair gene MLH1 occur frequently in Spanish Lynch syndrome families. To understand their ancestral history and clinical effect, we performed functional assays and a penetrance analysis and studied their genetic and geographic origins. Detailed family histories were taken from 29 carrier families. Functional analysis included in silico and in vitro assays at the RNA and protein levels. Penetrance was calculated using a modified segregation analysis adjusted for ascertainment. Founder effects were evaluated by haplotype analysis. The identified MLH1 c.306+5G>A and c.1865T>A (p.Leu622His) variants are absent in control populations and segregate with the disease. Tumors from carriers of both variants show microsatellite instability and loss of expression of the MLH1 protein. The c.306+5G>A variant is a pathogenic mutation affecting mRNA processing. The c.1865T>A (p.Leu622His) variant causes defects in MLH1 expression and stability. For both mutations, the estimated penetrance is moderate (age-cumulative colorectal cancer risk by age 70 of 20.1% and 14.1% for c.306+5G>A and of 6.8% and 7.3% for c.1865T>A in men and women carriers, respectively) in the lower range of variability estimated for other pathogenic Spanish MLH1 mutations. A common haplotype was associated with each of the identified mutations, confirming their founder origin. The ages of c.306+5G>A and c.1865T>A mutations were estimated to be 53 to 122 and 12 to 22 generations, respectively. Our results confirm the pathogenicity, moderate penetrance, and founder origin of the MLH1 c.306+5G>A and c.1865T>A mutations. These findings have important implications for genetic counseling and molecular diagnosis of Lynch syndrome. ©2010 AACR.

Horne H.N.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Horne H.N.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | Chung C.C.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Zhang H.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | And 135 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

The Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility genome-wide association study (GWAS) originally identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs11249433 at 1p11.2 associated with breast cancer risk. To fine-map this locus, we genotyped 92 SNPs in a 900kb region (120,505,799-121,481,132) flanking rs11249433 in 45,276 breast cancer cases and 48,998 controls of European, Asian and African ancestry from 50 studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Genotyping was done using iCOGS, a custom-built array. Due to the complicated nature of the region on chr1p11.2:120,300,000-120,505,798, that lies near the centromere and contains seven duplicated genomic segments, we restricted analyses to 429 SNPs excluding the duplicated regions (42 genotyped and 387 imputed). Perallelic associations with breast cancer risk were estimated using logistic regression models adjusting for study and ancestry-specific principal components. The strongest association observed was with the original identified index SNP rs11249433 (minor allele frequency (MAF) 0.402; per-allele odds ratio (OR) = 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08-1.13, P = 1.49 x 10-21). The association for rs11249433 was limited to ER-positive breast cancers (test for heterogeneity P<8.41 x 10-5). Additional analyses by other tumor characteristics showed stronger associations with moderately/well differentiated tumors and tumors of lobular histology. Although no significant eQTL associations were observed, in silico analyses showed that rs11249433 was located in a region that is likely a weak enhancer/promoter. Fine-mapping analysis of the 1p11.2 breast cancer susceptibility locus confirms this region to be limited to risk to cancers that are ER-positive.

Zhao Z.,Vanderbilt University | Wen W.,Vanderbilt University | Michailidou K.,University of Cambridge | Bolla M.K.,University of Cambridge | And 132 more authors.
Cancer Causes and Control | Year: 2016

Purpose: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has been reported to be associated with an elevated risk of breast cancer. It is unclear, however, whether this association is due to shared genetic factors. Methods: We constructed a genetic risk score (GRS) using risk variants from 33 known independent T2D susceptibility loci and evaluated its relation to breast cancer risk using the data from two consortia, including 62,328 breast cancer patients and 83,817 controls of European ancestry. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to derive adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) to measure the association of breast cancer risk with T2D GRS or T2D-associated genetic risk variants. Meta-analyses were conducted to obtain summary ORs across all studies. Results: The T2D GRS was not found to be associated with breast cancer risk, overall, by menopausal status, or for estrogen receptor positive or negative breast cancer. Three T2D associated risk variants were individually associated with breast cancer risk after adjustment for multiple comparisons using the Bonferroni method (at p < 0.001), rs9939609 (FTO) (OR 0.94, 95 % CI = 0.92–0.95, p = 4.13E−13), rs7903146 (TCF7L2) (OR 1.04, 95 % CI = 1.02–1.06, p = 1.26E−05), and rs8042680 (PRC1) (OR 0.97, 95 % CI = 0.95–0.99, p = 8.05E−04). Conclusions: We have shown that several genetic risk variants were associated with the risk of both T2D and breast cancer. However, overall genetic susceptibility to T2D may not be related to breast cancer risk. © 2016, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

Ghoussaini M.,University of Cambridge | French J.D.,QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute | Michailidou K.,University of Cambridge | Michailidou K.,The Cyprus Institute of Neurology and Genetics | And 140 more authors.
American Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2016

Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have revealed increased breast cancer risk associated with multiple genetic variants at 5p12. Here, we report the fine mapping of this locus using data from 104,660 subjects from 50 case-control studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). With data for 3,365 genotyped and imputed SNPs across a 1 Mb region (positions 44,394,495–45,364,167; NCBI build 37), we found evidence for at least three independent signals: the strongest signal, consisting of a single SNP rs10941679, was associated with risk of estrogen-receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer (per-g allele OR ER+ = 1.15; 95% CI 1.13–1.18; p = 8.35 × 10−30). After adjustment for rs10941679, we detected signal 2, consisting of 38 SNPs more strongly associated with ER-negative (ER−) breast cancer (lead SNP rs6864776: per-a allele OR ER− = 1.10; 95% CI 1.05–1.14; p conditional = 1.44 × 10−12), and a single signal 3 SNP (rs200229088: per-t allele OR ER+ = 1.12; 95% CI 1.09–1.15; p conditional = 1.12 × 10−05). Expression quantitative trait locus analysis in normal breast tissues and breast tumors showed that the g (risk) allele of rs10941679 was associated with increased expression of FGF10 and MRPS30. Functional assays demonstrated that SNP rs10941679 maps to an enhancer element that physically interacts with the FGF10 and MRPS30 promoter regions in breast cancer cell lines. FGF10 is an oncogene that binds to FGFR2 and is overexpressed in ∼10% of human breast cancers, whereas MRPS30 plays a key role in apoptosis. These data suggest that the strongest signal of association at 5p12 is mediated through coordinated activation of FGF10 and MRPS30, two candidate genes for breast cancer pathogenesis. © 2016 The Author(s)

Guo Y.,Vanderbilt University | Warren Andersen S.,Vanderbilt University | Shu X.-O.,Vanderbilt University | Michailidou K.,University of Cambridge | And 123 more authors.
PLoS Medicine | Year: 2016

Background: Observational epidemiological studies have shown that high body mass index (BMI) is associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer in premenopausal women but an increased risk in postmenopausal women. It is unclear whether this association is mediated through shared genetic or environmental factors. Methods: We applied Mendelian randomization to evaluate the association between BMI and risk of breast cancer occurrence using data from two large breast cancer consortia. We created a weighted BMI genetic score comprising 84 BMI-associated genetic variants to predicted BMI. We evaluated genetically predicted BMI in association with breast cancer risk using individual-level data from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) (cases = 46,325, controls = 42,482). We further evaluated the association between genetically predicted BMI and breast cancer risk using summary statistics from 16,003 cases and 41,335 controls from the Discovery, Biology, and Risk of Inherited Variants in Breast Cancer (DRIVE) Project. Because most studies measured BMI after cancer diagnosis, we could not conduct a parallel analysis to adequately evaluate the association of measured BMI with breast cancer risk prospectively. Results: In the BCAC data, genetically predicted BMI was found to be inversely associated with breast cancer risk (odds ratio [OR] = 0.65 per 5 kg/m2 increase, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.56–0.75, p = 3.32 × 10−10). The associations were similar for both premenopausal (OR = 0.44, 95% CI:0.31–0.62, p = 9.91 × 10−8) and postmenopausal breast cancer (OR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.46–0.71, p = 1.88 × 10−8). This association was replicated in the data from the DRIVE consortium (OR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.60–0.84, p = 1.64 × 10−7). Single marker analyses identified 17 of the 84 BMI-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in association with breast cancer risk at p < 0.05; for 16 of them, the allele associated with elevated BMI was associated with reduced breast cancer risk. Conclusions: BMI predicted by genome-wide association studies (GWAS)-identified variants is inversely associated with the risk of both pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer. The reduced risk of postmenopausal breast cancer associated with genetically predicted BMI observed in this study differs from the positive association reported from studies using measured adult BMI. Understanding the reasons for this discrepancy may reveal insights into the complex relationship of genetic determinants of body weight in the etiology of breast cancer. © 2016 Guo et al.

Petridis C.,King's College London | Brook M.N.,The Institute of Cancer Research | Shah V.,King's College London | Kohut K.,Queen Mary, University of London | And 107 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research | Year: 2016

Background: Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a non-invasive form of breast cancer. It is often associated with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), and is considered to be a non-obligate precursor of IDC. It is not clear to what extent these two forms of cancer share low-risk susceptibility loci, or whether there are differences in the strength of association for shared loci. Methods: To identify genetic polymorphisms that predispose to DCIS, we pooled data from 38 studies comprising 5,067 cases of DCIS, 24,584 cases of IDC and 37,467 controls, all genotyped using the iCOGS chip. Results: Most (67 %) of the 76 known breast cancer predisposition loci showed an association with DCIS in the same direction as previously reported for invasive breast cancer. Case-only analysis showed no evidence for differences between associations for IDC and DCIS after considering multiple testing. Analysis by estrogen receptor (ER) status confirmed that loci associated with ER positive IDC were also associated with ER positive DCIS. Analysis of DCIS by grade suggested that two independent SNPs at 11q13.3 near CCND1 were specific to low/intermediate grade DCIS (rs75915166, rs554219). These associations with grade remained after adjusting for ER status and were also found in IDC. We found no novel DCIS-specific loci at a genome wide significance level of P < 5.0x10-8. Conclusion: In conclusion, this study provides the strongest evidence to date of a shared genetic susceptibility for IDC and DCIS. Studies with larger numbers of DCIS are needed to determine if IDC or DCIS specific loci exist. © 2016 Petridis et al.

Guo Q.,University of Cambridge | Schmidt M.K.,Netherlands Cancer Institute | Kraft P.,Harvard University | Canisius S.,Netherlands Cancer Institute | And 165 more authors.
Journal of the National Cancer Institute | Year: 2015

Background: Survival after a diagnosis of breast cancer varies considerably between patients, and some of this variation may be because of germline genetic variation. We aimed to identify genetic markers associated with breast cancer-specific survival. Methods: We conducted a large meta-analysis of studies in populations of European ancestry, including 37954 patients with 2900 deaths from breast cancer. Each study had been genotyped for between 200000 and 900000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the genome; genotypes for nine million common variants were imputed using a common reference panel from the 1000 Genomes Project. We also carried out subtype-specific analyses based on 6881 estrogen receptor (ER)-negative patients (920 events) and 23059 ER-positive patients (1333 events). All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: We identified one new locus (rs2059614 at 11q24.2) associated with survival in ER-negative breast cancer cases (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.55 to 2.47, P = 1.91 x 10-8). Genotyping a subset of 2113 case patients, of which 300 were ER negative, provided supporting evidence for the quality of the imputation. The association in this set of case patients was stronger for the observed genotypes than for the imputed genotypes. A second locus (rs148760487 at 2q24.2) was associated at genome-wide statistical significance in initial analyses; the association was similar in ER-positive and ER-negative case patients. Here the results of genotyping suggested that the finding was less robust. Conclusions: This is currently the largest study investigating genetic variation associated with breast cancer survival. Our results have potential clinical implications, as they confirm that germline genotype can provide prognostic information in addition to standard tumor prognostic factors. © 2015 © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

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