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Manrique-Espinoza B.,Research Center en Evaluacion y Encuestas | Moreno-Tamayo K.,Research Center en Evaluacion y Encuestas | Solis M.M.T.R.,Research Center en Evaluacion y Encuestas | Cruz-Gongora V.V.D.L.,Research Center en Nutricion y Salud | And 2 more authors.
Salud Publica de Mexico | Year: 2014

Objective. To estimate the effects of physical activity (PA) and obesity on the cumulative incidence of disability on the basic activities of daily living in the elderly. Materials and methods. Longitudinal study. We selected 2477 participants aged 65-74 years from the impact evaluation study of a non-contributory pension program in Mexico. Participants were without disability at baseline. Katz index was used to assess disability both at baseline and follow-up. PA, body mass index, and covariates were measured at baseline. Results. After 14-months of follow-up, the cumulative incidence of disability reached 10.1%. High PA was found to reduce disability risk (OR=0.64; 95%CI [0.43-0.95]), and the association between obesity and disability was marginally significant (OR=1.36; 95%CI [0.96-1.95]). Conclusions. There is a need to perform a functional assessment of older adults in primary care to identify patients with functional dependence , and to promote physical activity to maintain muscle mass and thus reduce the incidence of disability.

Denova-Gutierrez E.,University of Central Mexico | Halley-Castillo E.,Institute Salud Del Estado Of Mexico | Borges G.,Metropolitan Autonomous University | Flores M.,Research Center en Nutricion y Salud | Salmeron J.,Instituto Nacional Of Salud Publica
Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism | Year: 2012

Background/Objective: Insulin resistance (IR) is a metabolic disorder that is increasing worldwide and has been associated with several negative health outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between different dietary patterns and IR among Mexican children and adolescents. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional analysis on baseline data from Mexican children and adolescents aged 7-18 years participating in the Health Workers Cohort Study. We included 916 children and adolescents of both sexes. Fasting serum glucose and insulin levels were determined by standardized methods. We defined IR using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) as ≥ 3.5. Factor analysis was used to identify dietary patterns. The associations of interest, those between IR and dietary patterns, were analyzed with multiple logistic regression models. Results: IR prevalence was 20.3% among girls and boys aged 7-18 years, for whom the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 29.7%. We identified 3 major dietary patterns in this group: 'Western', 'prudent' and 'high protein/fat'. For the purposes of this analysis we compared the upper versus the lower quintile of each dietary pattern. Independently of other covariates, participants in the highest quintile of the Western pattern had 92% greater odds of IR (OR 1.92, 95% CI: 1.08-3.43) compared with those in the lowest quintile. Conclusions: These findings support the hypothesis that high carbohydrate diets like our Western dietary pattern may increase IR in young people. This result emphasizes the importance of preventive nutrition interventions geared toward Mexican children and adolescents. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Wong R.,University of Texas Medical Branch | Michaels-Obregon A.,University of Texas Medical Branch | Palloni A.,University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee | Gutierrez-Robledo L.M.,Instituto Nacional Of Geriatria | And 6 more authors.
Salud Publica de Mexico | Year: 2015

Objective: To describe the third wave of the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS), completed in 2012, and present preliminary results. Materials and methods: Descriptive analyses by gender and age group of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, health conditions and health behaviors, as well as social support and life satisfaction measures are presented. In addition, external validations are presented by comparing MHAS 2012 indicators with other national data sources. Results: For the panel of older adults in the sample, the rate of health care insurance coverage increased greatly between 2001 and 2012, a significantly higher change in rural compared to urban areas. The results for 2012 are consistent with the previous two waves for the main indicators of health and physical disability prevalence, risk factors, and behaviors. Conclusions: The MHAS offers a unique opportunity to study aging in Mexico, as well as to complete cross-national comparisons. The cumulative number of deaths in the cohort should support the study of mortality and its association with health outcomes and behaviors over the life cycle. In addition, the sub-samples of objective markers will enable methodological research on self-reports and associations of biomarkers in old age with similar health outcomes and behaviors.

Bonvecchio A.,Research Center en Nutricion y Salud | Becerril-Montekio V.,Instituto Nacional Of Salud Publica | Carriedo-Lutzenkirchen A.,Research Center en Nutricion y Salud | Landaeta-Jimenez M.,Fundacion Bengoa
Salud Publica de Mexico | Year: 2011

This paper describes the Venezuelan health system, including its structure and coverage, financial sources, human and material resources and its stewardship functions. This system comprises a public and a private sector. The public sector includes the Ministry of Popular Power for Health (MS) and several social security institutions, salient among them the Venezuelan Institute for Social Security (IVSS). The MH is financed with federal, state and county contributions. The IVSS is financed with employer, employee and government contributions. These two agencies provide services in their own facilities. The private sector includes providers offering services on an out-of-pocket basis and private insurance companies. The Venezuelan health system is undergoing a process of reform since the adoption of the 1999 Constitution which calls for the establishment of a national public health system. The reform process is now headed by the Barrio Adentro program.

Villalpando S.,Research Center en Nutricion y Salud | Lara Zamudio Y.,Research Center en Nutricion y Salud | Shamah-Levy T.,Research Center en Nutricion y Salud | Mundo-Rosas V.,Research Center en Nutricion y Salud | And 2 more authors.
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2015

We carried out this study to compare the effect of consuming whole, partially defatted and defatted cows' milk for 4 months on serum concentrations of blood indicators of cardiovascular risk (CVR) in Mexican children and adolescents. Children aged between 6 and 16 years living in indigenous boarding schools in Mexico and who were usual consumers of whole milk were recruited to this study. Totally, thirteen boarding schools were randomly selected to receive full supplies of whole, partially defatted and defatted cows' milk for 4 months. Serum total cholesterol (TC), TAG, HDL-cholesterol, apoA and total apoB, and Lp(a) concentrations were measured before and after the intervention. Comparisons were made with multi-level mixed-effects linear regression models using the difference in differences approach. Compared with the whole milk group, TC, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and total apoB were lower in defatted milk consumers by -0·43, -0·28, -0·16 mmol/l and -0·05 g/l, respectively (all P<0·001). Compared with the whole milk group, the group that consumed partially defatted milk showed a significant decrease in the concentrations of LDL-cholesterol (-0·12, P=0·01), apoA (-0·05 g/l, P=0·01) and total apoB (-0·05 g/l, P=0·001). Defatted milk intake for 4 months reduced some of the serum indicators of CVR. © 2015 The Authors.

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