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Orozco A.C.,University of Antioquia | Munoz A.M.,University of Antioquia | Velasquez C.M.,University of Antioquia | Uscategui R.M.,University of Antioquia | And 6 more authors.
Biomédica : revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud | Year: 2014

UNLABELLED: Introduction : Obesity results from interaction between genetic and environmental risk factors.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of three gene variants and environmental factors on obesity and overweight in young people aged 10 to 18 years in a Colombian population.MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 424 subjects were selected and separated into three groups for a cross-sectional study; 100 obese and 112 overweight subjects were matched with 212 normal-weight controls. Associations were evaluated between excess weight and three genetic polymorphisms ( UCP3- rs1800849, FTO -rs17817449, and CAPN10 -rs3842570), as well as the family history, the time spent watching television and playing video games, and the diet.RESULTS: A family history of obesity, the time spent watching television and playing video games, the lack of breastfeeding, a low consumption of cereals, legumes, fruits, vegetables, and a high consumption of fast foods were characteristics typically found in obese individuals compared to controls. A significant association between genotype I/I (SNP19 of CAPN10 ) and excess weight was found even with an active lifestyle. In addition, significant associations between the C/C genotype of the UCP3 gene and the G/G and T/T genotypes of the FTO gene and excess weight were found only in young sedentary individuals.CONCLUSIONS: In this population, inadequate diet and sedentary lifestyle increased the risk of excess weight. Genotype I/I of SNP19 in CAPN10 was significantly associated with excess weight. In contrast, FTO and UCP3 variants exhibited effects only in sedentary environments. Source


Orozco A.C.,University of Antioquia | Munoz A.M.,University of Antioquia | Velasquez C.M.,University of Antioquia | Uscategui R.M.,University of Antioquia | And 7 more authors.
Biomedica | Year: 2014

Introduction: Obesity results from interaction between genetic and environmental risk factors. Objective: To evaluate the effect of three gene variants and environmental factors on obesity and overweight in young people aged 10 to 18 years in a Colombian population. Materials and methods: A total of 424 subjects were selected and separated into three groups for a cross-sectional study; 100 obese and 112 overweight subjects were matched with 212 normal-weight controls. Associations were evaluated between excess weight and three genetic polymorphisms (UCP3-rs1800849, FTO-rs17817449, and CAPN10-rs3842570), as well as the family history, the time spent watching television and playing video games, and the diet. Results: A family history of obesity, the time spent watching television and playing video games, the lack of breastfeeding, a low consumption of cereals, legumes, fruits, vegetables, and a high consumption of fast foods were characteristics typically found in obese individuals compared to controls. A significant association between genotype I/I (SNP19 of CAPN10) and excess weight was found even with an active lifestyle. In addition, significant associations between the C/C genotype of the UCP3 gene and the G/G and T/T genotypes of the FTO gene and excess weight were found only in young sedentary individuals. Conclusions: In this population, inadequate diet and sedentary lifestyle increased the risk of excess weight. Genotype I/I of SNP19 in CAPN10 was significantly associated with excess weight. In contrast, FTO and UCP3 variants exhibited effects only in sedentary environments. Source


Munera N.E.,Research Center en Nutricion | Uscategui R.M.,University of Antioquia | Parra B.E.,University of Antioquia | Manjarres L.M.,University of Antioquia | And 8 more authors.
Biomedica | Year: 2012

Introduction: The environmental risk factors such as food intake and physival activity, are determinantsin the etiology of metabolic syndrome in overweight adolescents. Objective: To explore the association between environmental risk factors and components presence of metabolic syndrome in overweight youngsters in Medellín. Materials and methods: Adolescents between the ages of 10 and 18 were selected for a crosssectional study. Body composition by anthropometry, blood pressure, lipid profile, glucose, insulin, food intake and physical activity level were assessed in the study population. Results: The prevalence for metabolic syndrome components of hypertriglyceridemia was 40.9%; hypertension, 20.9%; low HDLc, 15.6%; high waist circumference, 4.0%, and hyperglycemia, 0.9%; the overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 3.1%. There was a statistical difference (p<0.005) between the consumption of calories, simple and total carbohydrates and the presence of thecomponents; no association was found between the level of physical activity and the presence of components (p>0.05). The logistic regression model showed a higher probability of having at least onecomponent if the youngster was male (p=0.022), with a higher BMI (Body Mass Index) (p=0.019) and was located in the fourth simple carbohydrates consumption quartile (p=0.036). Conclusions. Environmental risk factors associated with components of metabolic syndrome were the increased consumption of calories, simple and complex carbohydrates, all directly related to the BMI. In contrast, the level of physical activity, family history and personal risk factors showed no association. The metabolic syndrome only occurred in youngsters with obesity. Source


Molinet C.,Austral University of Chile | Molinet C.,Research Center en Nutricion | Herrera C.,Austral University of Chile | Gebauer P.,University of Los Lagos | And 3 more authors.
Revista de Biologia Marina y Oceanografia | Year: 2010

The limited publications on the dynamics of Echinoids on the coast of Chile, despite its ecological significance to marine benthic communities, have hindered the understanding of the importance of this group on benthic communities and the proposal of appropriate conservation and management measures. The objective of this work was to study the vertical and temporal variability of early stages of Echinoids during spring-summer period in a southern channel of southern Chile and associate it, in the particular case of Loxechinus albus, with the reproductive status of adults individuals. For this, i) daily samples of plankton in three depth strata were collected, every 15 days from October 2005 to February 2006, ii) post-settlers on artificial substrates were monitored and iii) the gonad somatic index was obtained for adult specimens of L. albus. Planktonic larval stages of Arbacia dufresnei, Loxechinus albus, Pseudechinus magellanicus and Ophiuroidea, were identified, as well as Ophiuroidea and L. albus post-settlement. Larvae of L. albus in plankton coincided with a decrease of gonad index in adults of this species, whereas post-settlers were observed 15 days after the longest period of larval density in the plankton. Although information on A. dufresnei and P. magellanicus reproduction in adults was not collected, autumn-winter period has been reported as the period of maximum larval abundance. Echinoids larvae were observed in restricted periods, more frequently on the sea surface at night and in low density compared with previous studies. Source


Introduction: Interventions with physical exercise and nutritional guidance show changes in overweight among young people suffering from the metabolic syndrome (MS); nevertheless, their characteristics and results vary. Objective: To assess the effect of an intervention with physical exercise and nutritional guidance on components of the MS among overweighted young people. Materials and methods: Longitudinal study with an assessment before and another after the intervention in nine young people aged 11 to 17 years. Anthropometric aspects, resting heart rate, peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak), insulinemia, HOMA, and components of the MS were assessed. Intervention consisted of 12 weeks of supervised exercise, three 90-minute sessions/week (aerobic and strength), plus two unsupervised sessions; the weekly supply of fruits and vegetables in order to cover the five recommended daily servings, and individual and group nutrition education. Results: With the intervention waist circumference decreased from 90.5 ± 11.0 to 88.1 ± 9.9 cm; BMI from 30.2 ± 5.8 to 29.3 ± 5.6 kg/m2; total body fat from 39.8 ± 13.0 to 34.3 ± 9.0%; glycemia from 86.0 ± 8.6 to 83.1 ± 5.0 mg/dL; insulinemia from 23.2 ± 9.8 to 19.4 ± 7.6 μU/mL; HOMA-IR from 2.89 ± 1.21 to 2.39 ± 0.93; resting heart rate from 87.9 ± 4.3 to 78.2 ± 5.5 rpm, and VO2peak increased from 36.3 ± 5.1 to 38.5 ± 4.1 mL/kg/min. Four out of six young people with the diagnosis of MS at the beginning of the study did not present it at the end. Conclusions: Participating in an exercise program and increase in the consumption of fruits and vegetables among overweighted young people with components of the MS produced positive modifications in body composition, VO2peak, resting heart rate, and glycemia, as well as in the components and prevalence of the MS. Source

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