De La Cruz E.,National University of Costa Rica |
Fournier M.L.,National University of Costa Rica |
Garcia F.,Research Center en Enfermedades Tropicales |
Molina A.,University of Costa Rica |
And 4 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Biology | Year: 2014
Antibiotics alter the homeostasis of microbial communities and select for antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the wild. Thus, the accumulation of unnaturally high concentration of these substances in the environment due to their use in human activities can be regarded as a neglected form of Pollution, especially in countries with agricultural-based economies. Qualitative and quantitative information on antibiotic usage in Costa Rica is scarce, hence the design and enforcement of prevention strategies and corrective measures is difficult. To address this issue, and aiming in the long run to contribute with a more rational use of pharmaceuticals in the tropics, we characterized the hazard associated with the antibiotics used during 2008 in agriculture, aquaculture, pig farming, veterinary medicine and human medicine in the major irrigation district of Costa Rica. Hazard indicators were calculated based on antibiotic use and a weighted algorithm that also considered antibiotic fate, toxicity, and resistance. Moreover, hazard quotients were computed using maximum environmental concentrations reported for Costa Rican surface waters and predicted no effect concentrations for aquatic organisms. The number of antibiotics used in theATID during the study were n = 38 from 15 families. Antibiotic consumption was estimated at 1169-109908 g-1 ha year -1 and, distinctively, almost half of this figure was traced back to phenicols. Tetracyclines, with a particular contribution of oxytetracycline, were the most widely used antibiotics in agriculture and veterinary medicine. Oxytetracycline, florfenicol, chiortetracycline, sulfamethoxazole, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, sulfamethazine, trimethoprim and tylosin, in that order showed the highest hazard indicators. Moreover, hazard quotients greater than 1 were calculated for oxacillin, doxycycline, oxytetracycline, sulfamethazine, and ciprofloxacin. Studies dealing with the ecotoxicology of tetracyclines, sulfonamides and quinolones, as well as surveys of phenicol resistance among environmental bacteria, should be prioritized in Costa Rica. © Triveni Enterprises, Lucknow (India.
Quesada-Gomez C.,Research Center en Enfermedades Tropicales |
Mulvey M.R.,Public Health Agency of Canada |
Vargas P.,Research Center en Enfermedades Tropicales |
Del Mar Gamboa-Coronado M.,Research Center en Enfermedades Tropicales |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Food Protection | Year: 2013
We isolated a regional toxigenic genotype of Clostridium difficile, previously found in human infection in 4 of 200 (2%) samples of retail meats for human consumption: 1 of 67 samples of beef, 2 of 66 of pork, and 1 of 67 of poultry meat. These four isolates were positive for the tcdA and tcdB genes but negative for deletion of the tcdC and cdtB genes. All strains induced cytopathic effects in HeLa cells. However, they were susceptible to some antibiotics to which clinical isolates are often resistant. All strains were susceptible to vancomycin, metronidazole, moxifloxacin, and rifampicin but resistant to clindamycin and ciprofloxacin. This first report of isolation of C. difficile in foodstuff from Latin America lends support to the notion that animal products serve as a reservoir for clinical strains of this pathogen in the community. Copyright ©, International Association for Food Protection.
New records of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) at Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia [Nuevos hallazgos de flebotomíneos (Diptera: Psychodidae) en la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia]
Bejarano E.E.,University of Sucre |
Uribe S.I.,National University of Colombia |
Perez-Doria A.,University of Sucre |
Egurrola J.,Research Center en Enfermedades Tropicales |
And 2 more authors.
Acta Biologica Colombiana | Year: 2015
Phlebotomine sand flies, vectors of leishmaniasis, have not been well studied in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, and likewise, are not well known in other regions of the Department of Magdalena, Colombia. To date only thirteen species of Lutzomyia have been recorded as occurring in the Department. The present note adds three species and includes an additional subgenus. Collections were made in the lower foothills of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta at elevations ranging from 117–130 m in the communities of Seywiaka, Las Tinajas and Calabazo. Eighty-four percent of the 885 phlebotomines sand flies collected were obtained from CDC light traps, 11 % from Shannon trap and 5 % from typical resting sites using an electric aspirator. The following nine species were identified from the collections: Lutzomyia gomezi, Lu. panamensis, Lu. trinidadensis, Lu. carpenteri, Lu. evansi, Lu. dysponeta, Lu. dubitans, Lu. shannoni, and Lu. micropyga. The most abundant species were Lu. gomezi and Lu. panamensis, which, respectively, accounted for 69 % and 14 % of the specimens. Of the nine species, Lu. carpenteri, Lu. dubitansand Lu. dysponeta represent new records for the Department of Magdalena. Also, a few female specimens were encountered of a species belonging to the Lu. osornoi series of the subgenus Helcocyrtomyia, which represents the first record of this subgenus in the Caribbean region of Colombia. © 2015, Universidad Nacional de Colombia. All rights reserved.
Gonzalez-Barrientos R.,Catedra de Patologia |
Morales J.-A.,Catedra de Patologia |
Hernandez-Mora G.,National University of Costa Rica |
Barquero-Calvo E.,National University of Costa Rica |
And 5 more authors.
Journal of Comparative Pathology | Year: 2010
Seventeen striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) displaying swimming disorders compatible with neurological syndromes were investigated for Brucella infection. Sixteen dolphins had meningoencephalomyelitis. Serum antibody against Brucella antigen was detected in all 14 animals tested and Brucella ceti was isolated from eight out of nine animals. Brucella antigen was detected in the brain by immunofluorescence, but not by immunohistochemical labelling. By contrast, Brucella antigen was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry in the trophoblast of animals with severe placentitis and in the mitral valve of animals with myocarditis. The microscopical lesions observed in the tissues of the infected dolphins were similar to those of chronic brucellosis in man. The severity of brucellosis in S. coeruleoalba indicates that this dolphin species is highly susceptible to infection by B. ceti. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd.
Insecticidal resistance profiles of an aedes aegypti (linnaeus) strain from the caribbean region of costa rica [Perfil de resistencia a insecticidas en una cepa de Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) de la región Caribe de Costa Rica]
Calderon-Arguedas O.,University of Costa Rica |
Adriana Troyo C.,Research Center en Enfermedades Tropicales
Revista Cubana de Medicina Tropical | Year: 2014
Introduction: dengue is the main vector-borne disease in Costa Rica. The control of the vector Aedes aegypti covers the application of pyrethrins and temephos. For this reason, it is important to monitor the development of resistance to these insecticides. Material and Methods: bioassays were performed using Ae .aegypti larvae from the county of Guacimo in the Caribbean region of Costa Rica. Twenty-larvae groups were exposed to insecticidadl concentrations for 24 hours, which would generate 2 to 100 % mortality. The tests were performed five times, and a 50 % lethal concentration (LC50) was calculated. The Rockefeller strain was used as susceptibility control. A 50 % resistance ratio (RR50) was calculated for each insecticide. When resistance occurred, tests were repeated by exposing the larvae to piperonyl butoxide (PB) and S, S, S, tributylphosphorotrithioate (DEF) in order to determine the enzymatic mechanism associated with this resistance. Results: no resistance to temephos or deltamethrin was observed, but emerging resistance to cypermethrin was detected (LC50 = 0.00845 mg/L, range from 0.00664 to 0.01038, RR50 = 6.07). The synergistic analysis determined a synergism ratio (SR) of 19.2 for PB and 0.9 for DEF. Conclusions: these results show that there is a process of developing resistance to cypermethrin in Ae. aegypti mosquitoes of this county, which is associated with cytochrome P450 monooxygenase activity. This alerts authorities to the need of replacing this insecticide and ensure the appropriate vector control without generating resistance. © 2014, Editorial Ciencias Medicas. All rights reserved.