Garcia-Rico L.,Research Center En Alimentacion sarrollo Ac
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2013
The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of total and inorganic arsenic in dietary supplements composed of herbal plants and seaweed, and to determine the potential toxicological risk. Total arsenic was determined by dry ashing and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry, and inorganic arsenic was determined by acid digestion, solvent extraction, and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Total and inorganic arsenic in the supplements ranged from 0.07 to 8.31 mg kg-1 dry weight and from 0.14 to 0.28 mg kg-1 dry weight, respectively. Daily intake of total arsenic ranged from 0.05 to 12.46 μg day-1. Inorganic arsenic intake ranged from 0.21 to 0.83 μg day-1, values that are below the Benchmark Dose Lower Confidence Limit recommended by the Word Health Organization. Therefore, there appears to be a low risk of adverse effects resulting from excess inorganic arsenic intake from these supplements. This is the first study conducted in Mexico that investigates total and inorganic arsenic in dietary supplements. Although the results do not suggest toxicological risk, it is nonetheless important considering the toxicity of inorganic arsenic and the increasing number consumer preferences for dietary supplements. Moreover, it is important to improve and ensure the safety of dietary supplements containing inorganic arsenic. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
Cervantes-Paz B.,Research Center En Alimentacion sarrollo Ac |
Yahia E.M.,Autonomous University of Queretaro |
De Jesus Ornelas-Paz J.,Research Center En Alimentacion sarrollo Ac |
Victoria-Campos C.I.,Research Center En Alimentacion sarrollo Ac |
And 3 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2014
Jalapeño peppers at intermediate ripening stages (IRS) are typically discarded at the packinghouse because they are not demanded for fresh consumption or industrial processing. These peppers have been scarcely studied in terms of pigment composition and bioactivity. In this study, the profile of pigments (carotenoids and chlorophylls) and antioxidant activity were determined in raw and heat-processed Jalapeño peppers at three IRS (brown, 50% red, and 75% red). Peppers contained 64 different pigments. Chlorophylls were the most abundant pigments in raw brown peppers while capsanthin was the most abundant at the other IRS. The content of most pigments decreased due to heat treatments. Several pheophytins and cis isomers of carotenoids were generated by heat processing. Boiling and grilling consistently decreased and increased the antioxidant activity of peppers, respectively. Tested peppers showed a more complex/abundant pigment content and higher antioxidant activity than those typically reported for green and red peppers. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Victoria-Campos C.I.,Research Center En Alimentacion sarrollo Ac |
Ornelas-Paz J.D.J.,Research Center En Alimentacion sarrollo Ac |
Yahia E.M.,Autonomous University of Queretaro |
Failla M.L.,Ohio State University
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2013
The high diversity of carotenoids and chlorophylls in foods contrasts with the reduced number of pigments that typically are investigated in micellarization studies. In this study, pepper samples (raw and heat-treated) contained 68 individual pigments, but only 38 of them were micellarized after in vitro digestion. The micellarization of pigments was majorly determined by the interaction effect of processing style (food matrix effect) and fat type (saturated and unsaturated). The highest micellarization was observed with raw peppers. Unsaturated fat increased the micellarization of carotenoid esters, while the impact of fat on the micellarization of free carotenoids seemed to be dependent on pigment structure. The micellarization efficiency was diminished as the esterification level of carotenoids increased. The type of fatty acid moiety and the polarity of the carotenoids modulated their micellarization. Chlorophylls were transformed into pheophytins by heat-processing and digestion, with the pheophytins being stable under gastrointestinal conditions. Micellarization of pheophytins was improved by fat. © 2013 American Chemical Society.
Guerrero-Beltran J.A.,University of America |
Sepulveda D.R.,Research Center En Alimentacion sarrollo Ac |
Gongora-Nieto M.M.,Washington State University |
Swanson B.,Washington State University |
Barbosa-Canovas G.V.,Washington State University
Journal of Food Engineering | Year: 2010
Whole milk was processed using selected combinations of pulsed electric fields (PEF) and thermal treatments to inactivate Listeria innocua. Electric field intensities of 30 and 40 kV/cm were applied at selected number of pulses (1-30) and temperatures (20-72 °C) for less than 10 s. A maximum microbial reduction of 4.3 log cycles was achieved using 10, 17.5, 20 and 25 pulses, when processing milk at 30 kV/cm and initial temperatures of 43, 33, 23 and 13 °C, respectively. Around 4.3 log cycles of L. innocua was observed when treating milk at 40 kV/cm using 3, 10, 12.5, 15, and 20 pulses and 53, 33, 23, 15, and 3 °C, respectively. Milk treated with 40 kV/cm of electric field intensity, few pulses, and initial temperature close to 55 °C showed the best balance between L. innocua inactivation and energy-consumption. An energy expenditure of around 244 J/mL was achieved, which can be further reduced to 44 J/mL using a thermal regeneration system. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rosas-Rodriguez J.A.,Research Center En Alimentacion sarrollo Ac |
Valenzuela-Soto E.M.,Research Center En Alimentacion sarrollo Ac
Life Sciences | Year: 2010
Kidney medulla cells are exposed to a wide range of changes in the ionic and osmotic composition of their environment as a consequence of the urine concentrating mechanism. During antidiuresis NaCl and urea concentrations increase and an efficient urinary concentrating mechanism is accompanied by medullar hypoxia. Medullar hypotonicity increases reactive oxygen species, a byproduct of mitochondria during ATP production. High intracellular ionic strength, hypoxia and elevated ROS concentration would have deleterious effects on medulla cell function. Medulla cells respond to hypertonicity by accumulating organic osmolytes, such as glycine betaine, glycerophosphorylcholine, sorbitol, inositol, and taurine, the main functions of which are osmoregulation and osmoprotection. The accumulation of compatible osmolytes is thus crucial for the viability of renal medulla cells. Studies about the effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on the enzymes involved in the synthesis of osmolytes are scarce. In this review we summarize the information available on the effects of ROS on the enzymes involved in osmolyte synthesis in kidney. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.
Jimenez M.,Research Center En Alimentacion sarrollo Ac |
Chaidez C.,Research Center En Alimentacion sarrollo Ac
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2012
Monitoring of waterborne pathogens is improved by using concentration methods prior to detection; however, direct microbial enumeration is desired to study microbial ecology and human health risks. The aim of this work was to determine Salmonella presence in river water with an ultrafiltration system coupled with the ISO 6579:1993 isolation standard method (UFS-ISO). Most probable number (MPN) method was used directly in water samples to estimate Salmonella populations. Additionally, the effect between Salmonella determination and water turbidity was evaluated. Ten liters or three tenfold dilutions (1, 0.1, and 0.01 mL) of water were processed for Salmonella detection and estimation by the UFS-ISO and MPN methods, respectively. A total of 84 water samples were tested, and Salmonella was confirmed in 64/84 (76%) and 38/84 (44%) when UFS-ISO and MPN were used, respectively. Salmonella populations were less than 5×103 MPN/L in 73/ 84 of samples evaluated (87%), and only three (3.5%) showed contamination with numbers greater than 4.5×104 MPN/L. Water turbidity did not affect Salmonella determination regardless of the performed method. These findings suggest that Salmonella abundance in Sinaloa rivers is not a health risk for human infections in spite of its persistence. Thus, choosing the appropriate strategy to study Salmonella in river water samples is necessary to clarify its behavior and transport in the environment. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011.
Martinez-Quintana J.A.,Research Center En Alimentacion sarrollo Ac |
Yepiz-Plascencia G.,Research Center En Alimentacion sarrollo Ac
Electronic Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2012
Glucose and related hexoses are very important metabolic substrates. Their most important function is to provide quick fuel for most organisms in all three kingdoms because they are the first substrate for energy production in the form of ATP through glycolysis and the subsequent metabolic pathways. In this paper we review the current information about how glucose and related hexoses are transported across biological membranes to carry out their function either as a metabolic molecule or as energy store in marine invertebrate organisms. In these animals, there are two sugar transport systems that are mediated by the sodium/solute symporter family proteins (SGLT) and the major facilitative super-family proteins (GLUT). The most studied sugar transporters in marine invertebrates are involved with dietary sugar uptake, such as SGLT1, SGLT4, GLUT2 and GLUT5, however more studies need to be done to extend the knowledge about these and other sugar transporters involved in metabolic processes. © 2012 by Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Chile.
Aleman-Mateo H.,Research Center En Alimentacion sarrollo Ac |
Lopez Teros M.T.,Research Center En Alimentacion sarrollo Ac |
Ramirez C F.A.,Research Center En Alimentacion sarrollo Ac |
Astiazaran-Garcia H.,Research Center En Alimentacion sarrollo Ac
Journals of Gerontology - Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences | Year: 2014
Background. It has been hypothesized that insulin resistance plays a role in the development of the loss of skeletal muscle; however, no cohort studies on insulin resistance and low relative appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) have been published to date. Thus, we examined whether insulin resistance is associated with low relative ASM after a 4.6-year follow-up period among apparently healthy older men and women participants. Methods. This is a combined retrospective-prospective cohort study, which includes 147 community-dwelling older men and women participants. ASM was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry at baseline and follow-up. Participants with a relative change in ASM below the sex-specific 15th value were classified as the low relative ASM group. Homeostatic model assessment was used to quantify insulin resistance. Logistic regression calculated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for development of low relative ASM, adjusted for covariates. Results. The loss of ASM in the low relative ASM and normal groups was -1.8kg and -0.35kg, respectively (p ≤. 05). The low relative ASM group was older and had higher insulin and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance values at baseline. The risk of developing low relative ASM at 4.6-year follow-up was 2.9 times higher (95% CI, 1.00-7.8; p =. 04) among the participants with homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance levels more than 2.3. After adjusting for age, the risk increased to 3.9 times higher (95% CI, 1.3-11.5; p =. 03). Conclusion. Insulin resistance was associated with low relative ASM at 4.6-year follow-up after accounting for several covariates in a cohort of apparently healthy, well-functioning young older men and women. © The Author 2013.
Silva-Rojas H.V.,Colegio de Mexico |
Avila-Quezada G.D.,Research Center En Alimentacion sarrollo Ac
Plant Pathology | Year: 2011
In recent years, anthracnose has become a significant disease affecting avocado fruit in the state of Michoacan, Mexico, where it significantly reduces fruit quality and commercial yield. Anthracnose has been assumed to involve Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. acutatum as causal agents. However, because of the increasing incidence of anthracnose, a more precise identification of the Colletotrichum spp. involved in this disease has become desirable. During the years 2004-2007, avocado fruits of different sizes exhibiting brown-black and reddish spots on the pericarp and soft rot in the mesocarp, were gathered from orchards in nine counties. Fungal isolates were cultured on potato dextrose agar, and among these, 31 were selected for molecular, morphological and pathogenicity analyses. The molecular approaches used sequence typing of the internal transcribed spacer region and the partial nuclear large ribosomal subunit, allowing the unequivocal identification of C. gloeosporioides (71%), C. acutatum (16%) and C. boninense (13%). This last species has not been previously reported as being associated with anthracnose symptoms in avocado fruits anywhere in the world. Various morphological characteristics such as the size and shape of conidia were determined, as well as the conidial mass colour. Pathogenicity tests performed with all three species were conducted by inoculating healthy fruits. In each case, identical symptoms developed within 3days of inoculation. Knowledge of the Colletotrichum populations in the Michoacan state, including the newly encountered avocado pathogen C. boninense, will facilitate further studies addressing the relationships between these Colletotrichum spp. and their avocado host. © 2011 Centro de Investigacion en Alimentacion y Desarrollo A.C. Plant Pathology © 2011 BSPP.
Yuzay I.E.,Michigan State University |
Auras R.,Michigan State University |
Soto-Valdez H.,Research Center En Alimentacion sarrollo Ac |
Selke S.,Michigan State University
Polymer Degradation and Stability | Year: 2010
Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) composites containing 5 wt% synthetic (type 4A) and natural (chabazite) zeolites were prepared using extrusion/injection molding. Morphological, structural, and thermal properties of composites were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). DSC results revealed that the glass transition and melting temperatures were not significantly changed; however, the incorporation of both type 4A and chabazite zeolites enhanced the nucleation of PLA crystallites as well as increased the percent crystallinity. Thermal degradation properties of PLA and PLA/zeolite composites were studied by non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) in nitrogen atmosphere. TGA results showed that at temperatures above 300 °C, PLA/type 4A synthetic zeolite composites were thermally decomposed more easily than the PLA and PLA/chabazite natural zeolite composites. The apparent activation energies of thermal degradation of PLA and PLA/zeolites composites estimated using both the Flynn-Wall-Ozawa and Kissinger methods followed the same order: PLA/type 4A < PLA/chabazite < PLA. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.