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Lopez-Corral L.,Servicio Of Hematologia Del Hospital Universitario Of Salamanca | Sarasquete M.E.,Servicio Of Hematologia Del Hospital Universitario Of Salamanca | Bea S.,University of Barcelona | Garcia-Sanz R.,Servicio Of Hematologia Del Hospital Universitario Of Salamanca | And 14 more authors.
Leukemia | Year: 2012

Genetic events mediating transformation from premalignant monoclonal gammopathies (MG) to multiple myeloma (MM) are unknown. To obtain a comprehensive genomic profile of MG from the early to late stages, we performed high-resolution analysis of purified plasma cells from 20 MGUS, 20 smoldering MM (SMM) and 34 MM by high-density 6.0 SNP array. A progressive increase in the incidence of copy number abnormalities (CNA) from MGUS to SMM and to MM (median 5, 7.5 and 12 per case, respectively) was observed (P=0.006). Gains on 1q, 3p, 6p, 9p, 11q, 19p, 19q and 21q along with 1p, 16q and 22q deletions were significantly less frequent in MGUS than in MM. Although 11q and 21q gains together with 16q and 22q deletions were apparently exclusive of MM status, we observed that these abnormalities were also present in minor subclones in MGUS. Overall, a total of 65 copy number-neutral LOH (CNN-LOH) were detected. Their frequency was higher in active MM than in the asymptomatic entities (P=0.047). A strong association between genetic lesions and fragile sites was also detected. In summary, our study shows an increasing genomic complexity from MGUS to MM and identifies new chromosomal regions involved in CNA and CNN-LOH. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Hospital General Of Soria, Research Center del Cancer CSIC, Hospital Juan Ramon Jimenez, Hospital Clinico Universitario Of Valladolid and 9 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

To explore novel genetic abnormalities occurring in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) through an integrative study combining array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and next-generation sequencing (NGS) in a series of MDS and MDS/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) patients. 301 patients diagnosed with MDS (n = 240) or MDS/MPN (n = 61) were studied at the time of diagnosis. A genome-wide analysis of DNA copy number abnormalities was performed. In addition, a mutational analysis of DNMT3A, TET2, RUNX1, TP53 and BCOR genes was performed by NGS in selected cases. 285 abnormalities were identified in 71 patients (23.6%). Three high-risk MDS cases (1.2%) displayed chromothripsis involving exclusively chromosome 13 and affecting some cancer genes: FLT3, BRCA2 and RB1. All three cases carried TP53 mutations as revealed by NGS. Moreover, in the whole series, the integrative analysis of aCGH and NGS enabled the identification of cryptic recurrent deletions in 2p23.3 (DNMT3A; n = 2.8%), 4q24 (TET2; n = 10%) 17p13 (TP53; n = 8.5%), 21q22 (RUNX1; n = 7%), and Xp11.4 (BCOR; n = 2.8%), while mutations in the non-deleted allele where found only in DNMT3A (n = 1), TET2 (n = 3), and TP53 (n = 4). These cryptic abnormalities were detected mainly in patients with normal (45%) or non-informative (15%) karyotype by conventional cytogenetics, except for those with TP53 deletion and mutation (15%), which had a complex karyotype. In addition to well-known copy number defects, the presence of chromothripsis involving chromosome 13 was a novel recurrent change in high-risk MDS patients. Array CGH analysis revealed the presence of cryptic abnormalities in genomic regions where MDS-related genes, such as TET2, DNMT3A, RUNX1 and BCOR, are located.


PubMed | Hospital Clinico Universitario, ICO Hospital Germans Trias i Pujol, Hospital del Mar, Hospital Universitario Virgen Of La Arrixaca and 6 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Oncotarget | Year: 2016

The biological and molecular events that underlie bone marrow fibrosis in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes are poorly understood, and its prognostic role in the era of the Revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R) is not yet fully determined. We have evaluated the clinical and biological events that underlie bone marrow fibrotic changes, as well as its prognostic role, in a well-characterized prospective patient cohort (n=77) of primary MDS patients. The degree of marrow fibrosis was linked to parameters of erythropoietic failure, marrow cellularity, p53 protein accumulation, WT1 gene expression, and serum levels of CXCL9 and CXCL10, but not to other covariates including the IPSS-R score. The presence of bone marrow fibrosis grade 2 or higher was associated with the presence of mutations in cohesin complex genes (31.5% vs. 5.4%, p=0.006). By contrast, mutations in CALR, JAK2, PDGFRA, PDGFRB,and TP53 were very rare. Survival analysis showed that marrow fibrosis grade 2 or higher was a relevant significant predictor for of overall survival, and independent of age, performance status, and IPSS-R score in multivariate analysis.


Mackintosh C.,Research Center del Cancer CSIC | Ordonez J.L.,Research Center del Cancer CSIC | Garcia-Dominguez D.J.,Research Center del Cancer CSIC | Sevillano V.,Research Center del Cancer CSIC | And 14 more authors.
Oncogene | Year: 2012

Despite extensive characterization of the role of the EWS-ETS fusions, little is known about secondary genetic alterations and their clinical contribution to Ewing sarcoma (ES). It has been demonstrated that the molecular structure of EWS-ETS lacks prognostic value. Moreover, CDKN2A deletion and TP53 mutation, despite carrying a poor prognosis, are infrequent. In this scenario identifying secondary genetic alterations with a significant prevalence could contribute to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the most aggressive forms of ES.We screened a 67 ES tumor set for copy number alterations by array comparative genomic hybridization. 1q gain (1qG), detected in 31% of tumor samples, was found markedly associated with relapse and poor overall and disease-free survival and demonstrated a prognostic value independent of classical clinical parameters. Reanalysis of an expression dataset belonging to an independent tumor set (n=37) not only validated this finding but also led us to identify a transcriptomic profile of severe cell cycle deregulation in 1qG ES tumors. Consistently, a higher proliferation rate was detected in this tumor subset by Ki-67 immunohistochemistry. CDT2, a 1q-located candidate gene encoding a protein involved in ubiquitin ligase activity and significantly overexpressed in 1qG ES tumors, was validated in vitro and in vivo proving its major contribution to this molecular and clinical phenotype. This integrative genomic study of 105 ES tumors in overall renders the potential value of 1qG and CDT2 overexpression as prognostic biomarkers and also affords a rationale for the application of already available new therapeutic compounds selectively targeting the protein-ubiquitin machinery. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.


Alvarez-Twose I.,Hospital Virgen del Valle | Gonzalez de Olano D.,Hospital Of Fuenlabrada | Sanchez-Munoz L.,Hospital Virgen del Valle | Matito A.,Hospital Virgen del Valle | And 15 more authors.
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2010

Background: Systemic mast cell activation disorders (MCADs) are characterized by severe and systemic mast cell (MC) mediators-related symptoms frequently associated with increased serum baseline tryptase (sBt). Objective: To analyze the clinical, biological, and molecular characteristics of adult patients presenting with systemic MC activation symptoms/anaphylaxis in the absence of skin mastocytosis who showed clonal (c) versus nonclonal (nc) MCs and to provide indication criteria for bone marrow (BM) studies. Methods: Eighty-three patients were studied. Patients showing clonal BM MCs were grouped into indolent systemic mastocytosis without skin lesions (ISMs-; n = 48) and other c-MCADs (n = 3)-both with CD25++ BM MCs and either positive mast/stem cell growth factor receptor gene (KIT) mutation or clonal human androgen receptor assay (HUMARA) tests-and nc-MCAD (CD25-negative BM MCs in the absence of KIT mutation; n = 32) and compared for their clinical, biological, and molecular characteristics. Results: Most clonal patients (48/51; 94%) met the World Health Organization criteria for systemic mastocytosis and were classified as ISMs-, whereas the other 3 c-MCAD and all nc-MCAD patients did not. In addition, although both patients with ISMs- and patients with nc-MCAD presented with idiopathic and allergen-induced anaphylaxis, the former showed a higher frequency of men, cardiovascular symptoms, and insect bite as a trigger, together with greater sBt. Based on a multivariate analysis, a highly efficient model to predict clonality before BM sampling was built that includes male sex (P = .01), presyncopal and/or syncopal episodes (P = .009) in the absence of urticaria and angioedema (P = .003), and sBt >25 μg/L (P = .006) as independent predictive factors. Conclusions: Patients with c-MCAD and ISMs- display unique clinical and laboratory features different from nc-MCAD patients. A significant percentage of c-MCAD patients can be considered as true ISMs- diagnosed at early phases of the disease. © 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology.


Mora J.,Hospital Sant Joan Of Deu | Rodriguez E.,Hospital Sant Joan Of Deu | de Torres C.,Hospital Sant Joan Of Deu | Cardesa T.,Hospital Sant Joan Of Deu | And 4 more authors.
Pediatric Blood and Cancer | Year: 2012

Background: In Ewing sarcoma (EWS) most of the research on signaling pathways has been performed on cell lines or animal models. The objective of the current study was to determine the relation between clinical outcome and the expression of proteins involved in active growth signaling pathways. Methods: A paraffin-embedded microarray of 45 human primary EWS tissue specimens was stained with the antibodies against c-KIT, AKT, p-AKT, p-mTOR, IGF-1R, IGFBP-3, MAPK, p27 KIP1, and p70S6 kinase. Immunohistochemical staining was correlated with patient overall survival (OS). Results: In the univariate analysis 3 variables showed statistical significance to predict survival: presence of metastasis, p-mTOR, and p27 KIP1. A positive stain for p-mTOR (hazard ratio of 4.74 [95% CI (57, 121)]) was significantly (log-rank test with a P=0.029) associated with better OS. Also, a positive stain for p27 KIP1 (hazard ratio of 6.87 [95% CI (77, 136)] was significantly (log-rank test with a P=0.009) associated with better OS. Multivariate analysis showed metastasis (HR: 4.3; 95% CI: 0.99, 19; P=0.05), p-mTOR (HR: 4.8 with 95% CI: 0.6, 38; P=0.13) and p27 (HR: 5.3; 95% CI: 1.37, 20; P=0.01) as independent prognostic factors of outcome. Conclusions: In our series, p-mTOR and p27 KIP1 protein overexpression were independently associated with better survival. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Mackintosh C.,Research Center del Cancer USAL CSIC | Garcia-Dominguez D.J.,Research Center del Cancer USAL CSIC | Ordonez J.L.,Research Center del Cancer USAL CSIC | Ginel-Picardo A.,Research Center del Cancer CSIC | And 4 more authors.
Oncogene | Year: 2013

Ewing sarcoma (ES) is an aggressive bone and soft tissue tumor of children and young adults in which finding effective new targeted therapies is imperative. Here, we report an in-depth preclinical study of the investigational cullin-RING ubiquitin ligase (CRL) inhibitor MLN4924 in ES, as we have recently demonstrated the implication of a CRL component in the ES pathogenesis. First, our results support a high sensitivity of ES cells to MLN4924 growth inhibition both in vitro (14 ES cell lines tested, median IC50=81 nM) and in tumor xenografts (tumor regression achieved with 60 mg/kg BID, subcutaneously, n=9). Second, we report a dual mechanism of action of MLN4924 in ES cells: while a wide range of MLN4924 concentrations (∼30-300 nM) trigger a G2 arrest that can only be rescued by WEE1 kinase inhibition or depletion, saturating doses of the drug (>300 nM) cause a delay in S-phase progression concomitant with unbalanced CDK2-Cyclin E and CDK2-Cyclin A relative levels (accumulation of the first and depletion of the latter). The aberrant presence of CDC6 in the nucleus at late S-phase cell cycle stage confirmed the loss of CDK2-Cyclin A-specific functions. Remarkably, other mechanisms explored (P27 accumulation and DNA damage signaling pathways) were found unable to explain MLN4924 effects, strengthening the specificity of our findings and suggesting the absence of functionality of some CRL substrates accumulated in response to MLN4924. This study renders a rationale for clinical trials and contributes molecular mechanisms for a better understanding of this promising antitumoral agent. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Velasco S.,Hospital Nacional Of Paraplejicos Sescam | Diez-Revuelta N.,Hospital Nacional Of Paraplejicos Sescam | Hernandez-Iglesias T.,Research Center Del Cancer CSIC | Kaltner H.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Neurochemistry | Year: 2013

Axon membrane glycoproteins are essential for neuronal differentiation, although the mechanisms underlying their polarized sorting and organization are poorly understood. We describe here that galectin-4 (Gal-4), a lectin highly expressed in gastrointestinal tissues and involved in epithelial glycoprotein transport, is expressed by hippocampal and cortical neurons where it is sorted to discrete segments of the axonal membrane in a microtubule- and sulfatide-dependent manner. Gal-4 knockdown retards axon growth, an effect that can be rescued by recombinant Gal-4 addition. This Gal-4 reduction, as inhibition of sulfatide synthesis does, lowers the presence and clustered organization of axon growth-promoting molecule NCAM L1 at the axon membrane. Furthermore, we find that Gal-4 interacts with L1 by specifically binding to LacNAc branch ends of L1 N-glycans. Impairing the maturation of these N-glycans precludes Gal-4/L1 association resulting in a failure of L1 membrane cluster organization. In all, Gal-4 sorts to axon plasma membrane segments by binding to sulfatide-containing microtubule-associated carriers and being bivalent, it organizes the transport of L1, and likely other axonal glycoproteins, by attaching them to the carriers through their LacNAc termini. This mechanism would underlie L1 functional organization on the plasma membrane, required for proper axon growth. Galectin-4 sorts to axon plasma membrane segments by binding to sulfatide-containing axonal carriers and, being bivalent, it organizes the transport of L1, and likely other glycoproteins, by attaching them to the same carriers specifically through their LacNAc termini. We propose that this mechanism would underlie L1 functional clustered organization on the axon membrane, required for proper axon growth. © 2013 International Society for Neurochemistry.


Gutierrez N.C.,Hospital Universitario La Paz | Sarasquete M.E.,Hospital Universitario La Paz | Misiewicz-Krzeminska I.,Hospital Universitario La Paz | Delgado M.,Hospital Universitario La Paz | And 10 more authors.
Leukemia | Year: 2010

Specific microRNA (miRNA) signatures have been associated with different cytogenetic subtypes in acute leukemias. This finding prompted us to investigate potential associations between genetic abnormalities in multiple myeloma (MM) and singular miRNA expression profiles. Moreover, global gene expression profiling was also analyzed to find correlated miRNA gene expression and select miRNA target genes that show such correlation. For this purpose, we analyzed the expression level of 365 miRNAs and the gene expression profiling in 60 newly diagnosed MM patients, selected to represent the most relevant recurrent genetic abnormalities. Supervised analysis showed significantly deregulated miRNAs in the different cytogenetic subtypes as compared with normal PC. It is interesting to note that miR-1 and miR-133a clustered on the same chromosomal loci, were specifically overexpressed in the cases with t(14;16). The analysis of the relationship between miRNA expression and their respective target genes showed a conserved inverse correlation between several miRNAs deregulated in MM cells and CCND2 expression level. These results illustrate, for the first time, that miRNA expression pattern in MM is associated with genetic abnormalities, and that the correlation of the expression profile of miRNA and their putative mRNA targets is useful to find statistically significant protein-coding genes in MM pathogenesis associated with changes in specific miRNAs. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.


PubMed | Hospital Universitario La Paz, University of Navarra and Research Center del Cancer CSIC
Type: | Journal: Oncotarget | Year: 2016

Multiple myeloma (MM) remains incurable despite the introduction of novel agents, and a relapsing course is observed in most patients. Although the development of genomic technologies has greatly improved our understanding of MM pathogenesis, the mechanisms underlying relapse have been less thoroughly investigated. In this study, an integrative analysis of DNA copy number, DNA methylation and gene expression was conducted in matched diagnosis and relapse samples from MM patients. Overall, the acquisition of abnormalities at relapse was much more frequent than the loss of lesions present at diagnosis, and DNA losses were significantly more frequent in relapse than in diagnosis samples. Interestingly, copy number abnormalities involving more than 100 Mb of DNA at relapse significantly affect the gene expression of these samples, provoking a particular deregulation of the IL-8 pathway. On the other hand, no significant modifications of gene expression were observed in those samples with less than 100 Mb affected by chromosomal changes. Although several statistical approaches were used to identify genes whose abnormal expression at relapse was regulated by methylation, only two genes that were significantly deregulated in relapse samples (SORL1 and GLT1D1) showed a negative correlation between methylation and expression. Further analysis revealed that DNA methylation was involved in regulating SORL1 expression in MM. Finally, relevant changes in gene expression observed in relapse samples, such us downregulation of CD27 and P2RY8, were most likely not preceded by alterations in the corresponding DNA. Taken together, these results suggest that the genomic heterogeneity described at diagnosis remains at relapse.

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