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Alonso-Castro A.J.,San Luis Potosi Institute of Scientific Research and Technology | Alonso-Castro A.J.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia | Zapata-Bustos R.,San Luis Potosi Institute of Scientific Research and Technology | Dominguez F.,Research Center Biomedica Of Oriente | And 3 more authors.
Phytomedicine | Year: 2011

Some Magnolia (Magnoliaceae) species are used for the empirical treatment of diabetes mellitus, but the antidiabetic properties of Magnolia dealbata have not yet been experimentally validated. Here we report that an ethanolic extract of Magnolia dealbata seeds (MDE) and its active principles honokiol (HK) and magnolol (MG) induced the concentration-dependent 2-NBDG uptake in murine 3T3-F442A and human subcutaneous adipocytes. In insulin-sensitive adipocytes, MDE 50 μg/ml induced the 2-NBDG uptake by 30% respect to insulin, while HK and MG, 30 μM each, did it by 50% (murine) and 40% (human). The simultaneous application of HK and MG stimulated 2-NBDG uptake by 70% in hormone-sensitive cells, on which Magnolia preparations exerted synergic effects with insulin. In insulin-resistant adipocytes, MDE, HK and MG induced 2-NBDG uptake by 57%, 80% and 96% respect to Rosiglitazone (RGZ), whereas HK and MG simultaneously applied stimulated 2-NBDG uptake more efficiently than RGZ (120%) in both murine and human adipocytes. Inhibitors of the insulin-signaling pathway abolished the glucose uptake induced by Magnolia dealbata preparations, suggesting that their antidiabetic effects are mediated by this signaling pathway. In addition, MDE, HK and MG exerted only mild to moderate proadipogenic effects on 3T3-F442A and human preadipocytes, although the combined application of HK and MG markedly increased the lipid accumulation in both cell types. In summary, Magnolia dealbata and its active principles HK and MG stimulate glucose uptake in insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant murine and human adipocytes using the insulin signaling pathway. © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved. Source


Alonso-Castro A.J.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia Mexico | Alonso-Castro A.J.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Dominguez F.,Research Center Biomedica Of Oriente | Garcia-Regalado A.,Metropolitan Autonomous University | And 4 more authors.
Pharmaceutical Biology | Year: 2014

Context: Cancer prevention remains a high priority for the scientific world. Magnolia dealbata Zucc (Magnoliaceae), a Mexican endemic species, is used for the empirical treatment of cancer. Objective: To evaluate the cytotoxic and cancer chemopreventive effects of an ethanol extract of Magnolia dealbata seeds (MDE). Materials and methods: The cytotoxic effect of MDE, at concentrations ranging from 1 to 200μg/ml, on human cancer cells and human nontumorigenic cells was evaluated using the MTT assay for 48h. The apoptotic activities of MDE 25μg/ml on MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells were evaluated using the TUNEL assay and the detection of caspase 3 using immunofluorescence analysis for 48h, each. The chemopreventive effect was evaluated by administrating different doses of MDE, between 1 and 50mg/kg, injected intraperitoneally daily into athymic mice which were implanted with MDA-MB231 cells during 28 days. The growth and weight of tumors were measured. Results: MDE showed cytotoxic effects on MDA-MB231 cells (IC50=25μg/ml) and exerted pro-apoptotic activities as determined by DNA fragmentation in MDA-MB231 cells. MDE 25μg/ml also induces the activation of caspase 3 in MDA-MB231 cells. These results suggest that Magnolia dealbata may be an optimal source of the bioactive compounds: honokiol (HK) and magnolol (MG). MDE 50mg/kg i.p. exerted chemopreventive effects by inhibiting the growth of MDA-MB231 tumor by 75% in athymic mice, compared to the control group. Conclusions: MDE exerts cytotoxic, apoptotic and chemopreventive activities on MDA-MB231 human cancer cells. © 2014 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Cuevas-Romero S.,National Research Center Disciplinaria en Microbiologia Animal | Cuevas-Romero S.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Rivera-Benitez J.F.,National Research Center Disciplinaria en Microbiologia Animal | Blomstrom A.-L.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | And 5 more authors.
Virus Genes | Year: 2016

Since the report of the initial outbreak of Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) infection in pigs, only one full-length genome from 1984 (PorPV-LPMV/1984) has been characterised. To investigate the overall genetic variation, full-length gene nucleotide sequences of current PorPV isolates were obtained from different clinical cases of infected swine. Genome organisation and sequence analysis of the encoded proteins (NP, P, F, M, HN and L) revealed high sequence conservation of the NP protein and the expression of the P and V proteins in all PorPV isolates. The V protein of one isolate displayed a mutation that has been implicated to antagonise the antiviral immune responses of the host. The M protein indicated a variation in a short region that could affect the electrostatic charge and the interaction with the membrane. One PorPV isolate recovered from the lungs showed a mutation at the cleavage site (HRKKR) of the F protein that could represent an important factor to determine the tissue tropism and pathogenicity of this virus. The HN protein showed high sequence identity through the years (up to 2013). Additionally, a number of sequence motifs of very high amino acid conservation among the PorPV isolates important for polymerase activity of the L protein have been identified. In summary, genetic comparisons and phylogenetic analyses indicated that three different genetic variants of PorPV are currently spreading within the swine population, and a new generation of circulating virus with different characteristics has begun to emerge. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source


Cuevas-Romero S.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Cuevas-Romero S.,National Research Center Disciplinaria en Microbiologia Animal | Hernandez-Baumgarten E.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Kennedy S.,Agri Food and Biosciences Institute of Northern Ireland | And 3 more authors.
Virus Research | Year: 2014

The persistence of porcine rubulavirus (PorPV-LPMV) in five pigs that had survived an outbreak of a natural infection was determined. After the resolution of the outbreak, each animal was housed in an isolation pen together with one sentinel pig. Approximately every 2 months thereafter one group of animals was euthanized and tissue samples taken for virological and serological analysis. Infectious virus was not isolated from any samples; antibodies to PorPV-LPMV were detected in convalescent pigs by virus neutralisation test and blocking ELISA but not in sentinel pigs. PorPV-LPMV mRNA of the nucleoprotein (NP) and phosphoprotein (P) genes was detected by a nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) in samples of trigeminal and optic nerves, cervical spinal cord, tonsils, salivary gland, lung and pancreas from convalescent pigs. mRNA was also detected in the midbrain, corpus callosum, or olfactory bulb in four out of five pigs by nRT-PCR, this result was confirmed by the sequencing of a 260. bp PCR product of P gene region. The highest average viral copies/μg of total RNA occurred in the olfactory bulb and pancreas tissues of convalescent pigs and midbrain, tonsil and pancreas of sentinel pigs housed with the convalescent pigs. Satellitosis and gliosis of the midbrain, olfactory bulb, corpus callosum, medulla oblongata or choroid plexus were microscopically observed in four convalescent pigs. The control pig remained negative in all tests. The results indicate that PorPV-LPMV mRNA persists and induces a durable humoral immune response in pigs that have recovered from a natural infection. After a possible reactivation of the virus, it was transmitted to sentinel pigs in contact with the convalescent pigs. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source


Jacobo-Salcedo M.D.R.,Universidad Juarez del Estado de Durango | Alonso-Castro A.J.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Alonso-Castro A.J.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia | Salazar-Olivo L.A.,San Luis Potosi Institute of Scientific Research and Technology | And 12 more authors.
Natural Product Communications | Year: 2011

The antimicrobial effects of the Mexican medicinal plants Guazuma ulmifolia, Justicia spicigera, Opuntia joconostle, O. leucotricha, Parkinsonia aculeata, Phoradendron longifolium, P. serotinum, Psittacanthus calyculatus, Tecoma stans and Teucrium cubense were tested against several human multi-drug resistant pathogens, including three Gram (+) and five Gram (-) bacterial species and three fungal species using the disk-diffusion assay. The cytotoxicity of plant extracts on human cancer cell lines and human normal non-cancerous cells was also evaluated using the MTT assay. Phoradendron longifolium, Teucrium cubense, Opuntia joconostle, Tecoma stans and Guazuma ulmifolia showed potent antimicrobial effects against at least one multidrug-resistant microorganism (inhibition zone > 15 mm). Only Justicia spicigera and Phoradendron serotinum extracts exerted active cytotoxic effects on human breast cancer cells (IC 50≤30 μg/mL). The results showed that Guazuma ulmifolia produced potent antimicrobial effects against Candida albicans and Acinetobacter lwoffii, whereas Justicia spicigera and Phoradendron serotinum exerted the highest toxic effects on MCF-7 and HeLa, respectively, which are human cancer cell lines. These three plant species may be important sources of antimicrobial and cytotoxic agents. Source

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