Research Center Biomedica Of La Rioja Cibir

Logroño, Spain

Research Center Biomedica Of La Rioja Cibir

Logroño, Spain
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Lozano C.,University of La Rioja | Lozano C.,Research Center Biomedica Of La Rioja Cibir | Torres C.,University of La Rioja | Torres C.,Research Center Biomedica Of La Rioja Cibir
Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiologia Clinica | Year: 2017

Antimicrobial resistance among Gram-positive bacteria, especially in Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae, is a serious threat to public health. These microorganisms have multiple resistance mechanisms to agents currently used in clinical practice. Many of these resistance mechanisms are common to all 4 of these bacterial species, but other mechanisms seem to be more specific. The prevalence and dissemination of these mechanisms varies considerably, depending on the microorganism. This review discusses the resistance mechanisms to the most clinically relevant antibiotics, with particular emphasis on the new mechanisms described for widely used antibiotics and for newer agents such as lipopeptides, lipoglycopeptides, glycylcyclines and oxazolidinones. © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U.

PubMed | c Laboratory of the National Bone Marrow Transplantation Center, a Institute of Veterinary Research of Tunisia, Research Center Biomedica Of La Rioja Cibir and d National Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology of Tunisia
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of chemotherapy (Florence, Italy) | Year: 2016

Antimicrobial resistance phenotypes, tetracycline, sulphonamide resistance genes, and integrons were analysed in 48 Escherichia coli isolates recovered from urine cultures of diabetic patients in Tunisia. Twenty-one were susceptible to all antibiotics tested. High rates of resistance were observed for amoxicillin (39.5%), trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (33.3%), sulphonamide (33.3%), and tetracycline (31.2%). Resistance to imipenem was not detected, and ESBL producing isolates were not recovered. Our analysis assigned 26, 13, 3, and 5 isolates to phylogroups A, B1, B2, and D, respectively. It is worthy to note that all the resistant isolates belonged to phylogroups A (15 isolates) and B1 (12 isolates), while for the 21 susceptible isolates, phylogroups A, B1, B2, and D were found in 11, 2, 3, and 5 isolates, respectively. Among 15 tetracycline-resistant isolates, the tetA and tetB genes were detected in three and four isolates, respectively. Among 17 sulphonamide resistant isolates, 12, 3, and 1 isolates harboured sul1, sul2, and sul3, respectively. sul1 and sul2 genes occurred simultaneously in three isolates. Integrons were detected in 11 isolates. Ten isolates harboured the class 1 integron and three the class 2 integron. The variable regions (VRs) of the class 1 integrons were analysed in the 10 in1-positive isolates, and the following gene cassette arrangements were detected: dfrA12-orfF-aadA2-cmIA1-aadA1-qacH-IS440-sul3 (one isolate), dfrA15-aadA1 (three isolates), dfrA5 (one isolate), dfrA17- aadA5 (one isolate), dfrA1-aadA1 (one isolate), and dfrA14 (one isolate). The VR of class 2 integron was analysed in the in2-positive isolates, and only one gene cassette arrangement was detected, dfrA1-sat-aadA1. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis of resistant isolates showed that all were unrelated. Our results highlight the moderate antibiotic resistance in the clinical isolates as well as their heterogeneous genetic background.

de Toro M.,Research Center Biomedica Of La Rioja Cibir | de Toro M.,University of La Rioja | Rodriguez I.,Federal Institute for Risk Assessment BfR | Rojo-Bezares B.,Research Center Biomedica Of La Rioja Cibir | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy | Year: 2013

To characterize a 5.9 kb aac(6')-Ib-cr-harbouring plasmid that was detected in a clinical Salmonella Typhimurium DT104B strain. Methods: Extraction and purification of plasmid DNA and electrotransformation assays were carried out in order to obtain kanamycin-resistant transformants. MICs of several fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides were determined. DNA sequencing was performed by primer walking on purified plasmid preparations. The new plasmid nucleotide sequence was analysed and compared with available sequences using bioinformatic tools. Results: pMdT1 is a 5.9 kb mobilizable ColE1-like plasmid that harbours aac(6')-Ib-cr4, a gene encoding a new variant of the AAC(6')-Ib-cr protein (225 amino acids). This active protein conferred resistance to tobramycin and kanamycin, and also decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin in the transformant strain, as MICs demonstrated. The mobilization region, necessary for horizontal transfer and composed of the mobA, mobB, mobC and mobD genes, displayed a high degree of identity with those from representative ColE1-like plasmids. The basis of mobility (bom), oriT and origin of replication regions were also detected. Apart from the acetylase-encoding gene, three other open reading frames (ORFs) were determined. No similarities were found when the ORF1 sequence was compared with the sequences included in GenBank. The deduced ORF2 protein predicted a CopG-like structure characteristic of transcriptional regulators, and the deduced ORF3 protein was identical to macrophage stimulating factors. Conclusions: The pMdT1 is the smallest mobilizable ColE1-like plasmid containing an aac(6')-Ib-cr gene that has been described so far. ©The Author 2013.

Rojo-Bezares B.,Research Center Biomedica Of La Rioja Cibir | Estepa V.,University of La Rioja | Cebollada R.,Hospital Clinico Universitario Lozano Blesa | de Toro M.,Research Center Biomedica Of La Rioja Cibir | And 9 more authors.
International Journal of Medical Microbiology | Year: 2014

Molecular typing and mechanisms of carbapenem resistance such as alterations in porin OprD and presence of metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs), as well as integrons have been studied in a collection of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPA) isolates from a Spanish hospital. One hundred and twenty-three CRPA isolates were recovered from different samples of 80 patients. Clonal relationship among CRPA was analyzed by SpeI-PFGE. Susceptibility testing to 11 antibiotics and MBL phenotype was determined by microdilution, IP/IPI E-test and double disc method. The oprD gene was studied by PCR and sequencing, and mutations were determined comparing with P. aeruginosa PAO1 sequence. Characterization of MBLs, and class 1 and 2 integrons were studied by PCR and sequencing. SDS-PAGE analysis of outer membrane proteins of selected strains was performed.Seventy-four-per-cent of patients with CRPA were hospitalised in the ICU setting and 50% had long hospitalization stays. Sixty-four different PFGE patterns were detected, and 87 CRPA strains were further analyzed. MBL phenotype was detected in 43 of 87 strains (49.4%), which contained blaVIM-2 gene inside class 1 integrons. VIM-2-producing strains belonged to lineages ST175, ST235, and ST973. A great diversity of nucleotide insertions, deletions, and mutations in oprD gene, and the presence of a new insertion sequence (ISPa45) truncating oprD were identified among CRPA strains. Class 1 integrons were detected in 75% of CRPA strains, blaVIM-2 and the new arrangement aac(3)-Ia+ISPa34+aadA1 (named as In661) being the most frequent gene-cassette arrays detected. Other gene cassettes detected in integrons were: aadB, aadA6, aadA7, aac(6')-Ib', and blaOXA-46. © 2014 Elsevier GmbH.

Garrido A.,Hospital Clinico Universitario Lozano Blesa | Seral C.,Hospital Clinico Universitario Lozano Blesa | Seral C.,University of Zaragoza | Gude M.J.,Hospital Clinico Universitario Lozano Blesa | And 6 more authors.
Microbial Drug Resistance | Year: 2014

Aim: Active surveillance of plasmid-mediated β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (PMBL-E) in fecal carriers in the hospital and in the community setting in a non-outbreak period of time. Methods: Patients were screened for carriage of Enterobacteriaceae resistant to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins and PMBL-E were characterized (extended-spectrum-β-lactamase [ESBL], plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase [pAmpC], and carbapenemases) by PCR and sequencing. Results: The prevalence of ESBL and pAmpC carriers was 5.06% and 0.59%, respectively. Overall, CTX-M-like enzymes were the ESBL dominate enzymes (96.15%). The group CTX-M-9 was the most prevalent (81, 54%) [CTX-M-14 (74, 91.35%), CTX-M-9 (5, 6.17%), CTX-M-24 (1, 1.23%), and CTX-M-27 (1, 1.23%)] followed by the group CTX-M-1 (64, 42.67%) [CTX-M-15 (42, 65.63%), CTX-M-1 (13, 20.31%), CTX-M-32 (8, 12.5%), and CTX-M-3 (1, 1.56%)]. One CTX-M-10, one CTX-M-59, and three CTX-M-8 were also found. A very small representation of SHV or TEM ESBL enzymes was found (3.2% and 0.64%, respectively). pAmpC characterization revealed a predominance of CMY-2 (81.25%), followed by DHA-1 (18.75%). We did not detect the presence of carbapenemase producers. Conclusions: The prevalence of ESBL-producers from fecal carriers is stable in our area, but colonization by pAmpC producers has emerged recently as we have confirmed. Periodic active surveillance is useful to identify these human reservoirs and control the evolution of PMBL carriage in a community over time. © Copyright 2014, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2014.

Gomez-Sanz E.,University of La Rioja | Torres C.,University of La Rioja | Torres C.,Research Center Biomedica Of La Rioja Cibir | Lozano C.,University of La Rioja | And 2 more authors.
Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases | Year: 2011

The objective was to identify the methicillin-resistant coagulase-positive staphylococci (MRCoPS) nasal carriage rate of healthy dogs in La Rioja (Spain) and to characterize the recovered isolates by different molecular techniques. Nasal samples from 196 dogs were obtained (98 household-dogs, 98 pound-dogs). Isolates were identified and characterized by spa-, SCCmec- and MLST-typing, SmaI-PFGE, antimicrobial susceptibility, determination of antimicrobial resistance and toxin genes profiling. S. pseudintermedius was the only species recovered. Nine methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) were obtained from 9 of 196 sampled dogs (8% pound-dogs, 1% household-dogs). MRSP isolates were typed (MLST/PFGE/spa/SCCmec) as: ST71/A/t02/II-III (7 isolates), ST92/C/t06/V (1 isolate), and ST26/B/non-typable/non-typable (1 isolate). All MRSP were resistant to [resistance gene/number isolates]: β-lactams [mecA+blaZ/9], tetracycline [tet(K)/7, tet(M)/2], macrolides and lincosamides [erm(B)/9], aminoglycosides [aacA-aphD+aadE+aphA-3/9], and co-trimoxazol [dfr(G)/9]. Eight MRSP isolates showed also resistance to fluoroquinolones and amino acid changes in GyrA [Ser84Leu+Glu714Lys, 7 isolates; Ser84Leu, 1 isolate] and GrlA [Ser80Ile, 8 isolates] proteins were detected. The remaining isolate was chloramphenicol resistant and harboured cat pC221 gene. All MRSP isolates harboured the aadE-sat4-aphA-3 multiresistance-gene-cluster linked to erm(B) gene as well as the siet, si-ent and lukS/F-I toxin genes. MRSP is a moderately common (4.6%) colonizer of healthy dogs in Spain. A major MRSP lineage (ST71) was detected and its future evolution should be tracked. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

de Toro M.,Research Center Biomedica Of La Rioja Cibir | de Toro M.,University of La Rioja | Rojo-Bezares B.,Research Center Biomedica Of La Rioja Cibir | Vinue L.,University of La Rioja | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy | Year: 2010

Objectives: To characterize the mechanisms implicated in the in vivo selection of quinolone and aminoglycoside resistance in a faecal Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104B strain recovered after ciprofloxacin treatment of a hospitalized elderly patient with acute gastroenteritis. Methods: Two Salmonella Typhimurium isolates were obtained before (Se6) and after (Se20) treatment and they were typed by PFGE and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by disc diffusion and agar dilution methods. Class 1, 2 and 3 integrons and resistance mechanisms were studied by PCR and sequencing. Plasmids were typed. Results: Both Salmonella Typhimurium strains were resistant to tetracycline, streptomycin and sulphonamides, while Se20 was also resistant to nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, levofloxacin, ofloxacin, amikacin, tobramycin, kanamycin and trimethoprim. PFGE and MLST showed a clonal relationship between the strains, which belonged to the sequence type ST36. Both strains contained the repC-sul2-strA-strB structure and tet(A) and qnrS1 genes, and strain Se20 also contained the aac(6′)-Ib-cr gene, the Ser83→Tyr substitution in GyrA and one class 1 integron with the dfrA17+aadA5 gene cassette arrangement lacking qacEΔ1+sul1. Two different transconjugants from Salmonella Se20 (TCSe20B and TCSe20L) harboured qnrS1 and sul2 genes and the class 1 integron. The TCSe20B strain also acquired the aac(6′)-Ib-cr gene located on a non-typeable plasmid. qnrS1 was identified on a ColE-type plasmid and the class 1 integron on an IncI1-type plasmid. Conclusions: This is the first report of in vivo selection of the aac(6′)-Ib-cr gene and the Ser83→Tyr change in GyrA in a qnrS1-positive Salmonella Typhimurium strain after ciprofloxacin treatment; the in vitro transfer of both plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes was also demonstrated. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

Porres-Osante N.,University of La Rioja | Porres-Osante N.,Research Center Biomedica Of La Rioja Cibir | Azcona-Gutierrez J.M.,Hospital San Pedro | Rojo-Bezares B.,Research Center Biomedica Of La Rioja Cibir | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy | Year: 2014

Objectives: To characterize the mechanisms involved in carbapenem resistance, as well as the genetic elements supporting their mobilization, in a multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli isolate. Methods: The E. coli isolate was obtained from a patient with fatal urinary sepsis. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by the disc diffusion and agar dilution methods. The E. coli molecular type and phylogroup were determined using multilocus sequence typing and the triple PCR technique, respectively. PCR and sequencing were used for virulence and resistance genotype characterization. Plasmid content and gene location were analysed by S1-PFGE, I-Ceu1-PFGE and hybridization experiments. Transformation assays were performed. Results: The E. coli strain, typed as ST448 and phylogroup B1, was resistant to all tested antibiotics except fosfomycin, tigecycline and tetracycline. The following resistance and virulence genetic structures were obtained: ISKpn7 + blaKPC-3 + ISKpn6 linked to Tn4401; tnpR + aac(6')-Ib'-9 + aadA1 + blaOXA-9 + tnpR + blaTEM-1a + tnpB + strB + strA + sul2; intI1 + blaVIM-1 + aac(6')-Ib' + aphA15 + aadA1 + catB2 + qacEΔ1-sul1 + orf5; ISEcp1 + blaCMY-2; IS26 + blaSHV-12; aph(3')-I; aac(3)-IV; floR; catA; and fimA. Mutations in the ampC promoter (-18, -1 and +58) and substitutions in the GyrA (Ser-83→Leu and Asp-87→Asn) and ParC (Ser-80→Ile) proteins were observed. IncFII (ST2), IncA/C and ColETP plasmids of 145.5, 87 and <2 kb, respectively, were found. The blaVIM-1 gene was located in a non-typeable plasmid of >300 kb, and the blaKPC-3 gene in the 145.5 kb IncFII plasmid. Transformant strains carried the IncFII and ColETP plasmids, and the blaKPC-3, blaTEM-1a, blaOXA-9, aadA1, aac(6')-Ib'-9, aac(3)-IV and floR genes. Conclusions: This is the first report of the co-production of KPC-3, VIM-1, SHV-12, OXA-9 and CMY-2 in a unique clinical multiresistant E. coli isolate. The dissemination of these genes on mobile genetic elements is alarming and complicates antimicrobial therapies. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

Arana D.M.,Hospital Universitario Of Getafe | Rojo-Bezares B.,Research Center Biomedica Of La Rioja Cibir | Torres C.,Research Center Biomedica Of La Rioja Cibir | Torres C.,University of La Rioja | Alos J.I.,Hospital Universitario Of Getafe
Revista Espanola de Quimioterapia | Year: 2014

We characterize the mechanisms implicated in an unusual phenotype of resistance to macrolides-lincosamides (no halos of inhibition around clindamycin and lincomycin discs, and a 15 mm halo around erythromycin disc) in a Streptococcus agalactiae isolate recovered in Spain. The presence of macrolide or lincosamide resistance genes [erm(A), erm(B), erm(C), erm(T), mef(A), mrs(A), lnu(A), lnu(B), lsa(B), lsa(C) and vga(C)] was investigated by PCR and sequencing. The strain showed a resistant phenotype to erythromycin and clindamycin (MIC = 2 mg/L and MIC = 8 mg/L, respectively) and the presence of lnu(B) and mef(A) genes was demonstrated. Clinical microbiology laboratories should be aware of this unusual phenotype due to the association of two mechanisms mediated by lnu(B) and mef(A) genes. This constitute, to our knowledge, the first report of lnu(B) in S. agalactiae in human isolates in Europe.

PubMed | Complexo Hospitalario Universitario Of Vigo Chuvi, University of Zaragoza, Hospital Clinico Universitario Lozano Blesa, Research Center Biomedica Of La Rioja Cibir and University of La Rioja
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease | Year: 2016

A high proportion of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates recovered in one year period showed high-level mupirocin-resistance (HLMUPR-MRSA) in our environment (27.2%). HLMUPR-MRSA isolates were mainly collected from skin and soft tissue samples, and diabetes was the main related comorbidity condition. These isolates were more frequently found in vascular surgery. HLMUPR-MRSA was more resistant to aminoglycosides than mupirocin-susceptible MRSA, linked to the presence of bifunctional and/or nucleotidyltransferase enzymes with/without macrolide resistance associated with the msr(A) gene. Most of HLMUPR-MRSA isolates belonged to ST125/t067. Nine IS257-ileS2 amplification patterns (p3 was the most frequent) were observed in HLMUPR-MRSA isolates, suggesting the presence of several mupirocin-resistance-carrying plasmids in our environment and promoting the emergence of mupirocin resistance. The presence of the same IS257-ileS2 amplification pattern p3 in 65% of HLMUPR-MRSA, all of them ST125/t067, suggests a clonal spread in our hospital and community environment which could explain the high prevalence of HLMUPR-MRSA during the study period. An outbreak situation or an increase in mupirocin consumption was not observed.

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