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Rosell M.,University of Barcelona | Rosell M.,Research Center Biomedica En Red Fisiopatologia Of La Obesidad tricion | Hondares E.,University of Barcelona | Hondares E.,Research Center Biomedica En Red Fisiopatologia Of La Obesidad tricion | And 12 more authors.
Endocrinology | Year: 2012

Retinol binding protein-4 (RBP4) is a serum protein involved in the transport of vitamin A. It is known to be produced by the liver and white adipose tissue. RBP4 release by white fat has been proposed to induce insulin resistance. We analyzed the regulation and production of RBP4 in brown adipose tissue. RBP4 gene expression is induced in brown fat from mice exposed to cold or treated with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists. In brown adipocytes in culture, norepinephrine, cAMP, and activators of PPARγ and PPARα induced RBP4 gene expression and RBP4 protein release. The induction of RBP4 gene expression by norepinephrine required intact PPAR-dependent pathways, as evidenced by impaired response of the RBP4 gene expression to norepinephrine in PPARα-null brown adipocytes or in the presence of inhibitors of PPARγ and PPARα. PPARγ and norepinephrine can also induce the RBP4 gene in white adipocytes, and over expression of PPARα confers regulation by this PPAR subtype to white adipocytes. The RBP4 gene promoter transcription is activated by cAMP, PPARα, and PPARγ. This is mediated by a PPAR-responsive element capable of binding PPARα and PPARγ and required also for activation by cAMP. The induction of the RBP4 gene expression by norepinephrine in brown adipocytes is protein synthesis dependent and requires PPARα-coactivator- 1-α, which acts as a norepinephine-induced coactivator of PPAR on the RBP4 gene. We conclude that PPARγ- and PPARγ-mediated signaling controls RBP4 gene expression and releases in brown adipose tissue, and thermogenic activation induces RBP4 gene expression in brown fat through mechanisms involving PPARγ-coactivator-1-α coactivation of PPAR signaling. Copyright © 2012 by The Endocrine Society.

Garcia-Galiano D.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Garcia-Galiano D.,Research Center Biomedica En Red Fisiopatologia Of La Obesidad tricion | Navarro V.M.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Navarro V.M.,Research Center Biomedica En Red Fisiopatologia Of La Obesidad tricion | And 24 more authors.
Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2010

The hypothalamic peptide, nesfatin-1, derived from the precursor NEFA/nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2), was recently identified as anorexigenic signal, acting in a leptin-independent manner. Yet its participation in the regulation of other biological functions gated by body energy status remains unexplored. We show herein that NUCB2/nesfatin-1 is involved in the control of female puberty. NUCB2/nesfatin mRNA and protein were detected at the hypothalamus of pubertal female rats, with prominent signals at lateral hypothalamus (LHA), paraventricular (PVN), and supraoptic (SON) nuclei. Hypothalamic NUCB2 expression raised along pubertal transition, with detectable elevations of its mRNA levels at LHA, PVN, and SON, and threefold increase of its total protein content between late-infantile and peripubertal periods. Conditions of negative energy balance, such as 48 h fasting or sustained subnutrition, decreased hypothalamic NUCB2 mRNA and/or protein levels in pubertal females. At this age, central administration of nesfatin-1 induced modest but significant elevations of circulating gonadotropins, whose magnitude was notably augmented in conditions of food deprivation. Continuous intracerebroventricular infusion of antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (as-MONs) against NUCB2 along pubertal maturation, which markedly reduced hypothalamic NUCB2 protein content, delayed vaginal opening and decreased ovarian weights and serum luteinizing hormone (LH) levels. In contrast, in adult female rats, intracerebroventricular injection of nesfatin did not stimulate LH or follicle-stimulating hormone secretion; neither did central as-MON infusion alter preovulatory gonadotropin surges, despite suppression of hypothalamic NUCB2. In sum, our data are the first to disclose the indispensable role of NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in the central networks driving puberty onset, a function that may contribute to its functional coupling to energy homeostasis. Copyright©2010 the authors.

Molares Vila A.,University of Vigo | Ruperez Perez de Arrilucea P.,University of California at San Francisco | Caso Pelaez E.,Research Center Biomedica En Red Fisiopatologia Of La Obesidad tricion | Gago-Martinez A.,University of Vigo
Journal of Proteomics | Year: 2010

Sample pre-treatment is a critical step for an efficient and reliable analysis and it is highly dependent on the complexity of the matrix. This work shows an example of application of an immunoprecipitation approach using a new magnetic beads-based format, which allows a selective/specific extraction of potential biomarkers from metastatic prostate cancer. Results obtained on the development of this method, and its application for the extraction and pre-concentration of certain biomarkers present in metastatic cell lines of prostate cancer, are presented and discussed. It is concluded that the efficiency of the immunoprecipitation step is clearly compromised by the crosslinking conditions and it is highly dependent on the specificity of selected antibodies. The epoxy magnetic beads used in this work allowed an effective crosslinking of the antibodies contributing to an increased efficiency of the immunoprecipitation step. The optimized conditions for the application of these epoxy magnetic beads for the immunoprecipitation of anti-TUBA3C in metastatic prostate cancer cell line (PC3) are discussed here, as an example of application of the immnuprecipitation approach developed, which resulted in a very efficient tool for a specific extraction and pre-concentration of the targeted protein and, therefore, contributing to the efficiency of further analysis. © 2010.

Garces M.F.,National University of Colombia | Peralta J.J.,National University of Colombia | Ruiz-Linares C.E.,National University of Colombia | Lozano A.R.,National University of Colombia | And 14 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2014

Context: Irisin is a recently discovered adipomyokine that regulates the differentiation and phenotype of adipose tissue. Objective: In this study, we investigated the levels of irisin over the three trimesters of gestation in healthy and preeclamptic women and during the follicular and luteal phase of the menstrual cycle in a cohort of healthy eumenoherric women. Methods: Serum irisin was measured by an ELISA in a longitudinal prospective cohort study in 40 healthy pregnant women, 10 mild preeclamptic women, and 20 healthy eumenoherric women during the menstrual cycle to assess irisin levels and correlations with other metabolic parameters. We identified the protein expression of fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5, the irisin precursor, in human placenta using immunohistochemical approaches in humans. Results: Serum irisin levels are higher in the luteal than in the follicular phase in eumenorrheic women. Fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5, the irisin precursor, is expressed in human placenta, and its serum levels are higher during the entire pregnancy when compared with nonpregnant women. Serum irisin correlates positively with the homeostasis model assessment of estimated insulin resistance in the first trimester of normal pregnancy. Serum irisin levels do not change throughout gestation in preeclamptic women; however, there were lower irisin levels during the third trimester when compared with the normal pregnant group. Conclusion: Our results suggest that irisin may be involved in reproductive function and in the pregnancy-associated metabolic changes, and this condition may be an irisin-resistant state during gestation. © 2014 by the Endocrine Society.

Schneeberger M.,Institute dinvestigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer IDIBAPS | Schneeberger M.,University of Barcelona | Schneeberger M.,Research Center Biomedica En Red Of Diabetes fermedades Metabolicas Asociadas | Dietrich M.O.,Yale University | And 31 more authors.
Cell | Year: 2013

Summary Mitofusin 2 (MFN2) plays critical roles in both mitochondrial fusion and the establishment of mitochondria-endoplasmic reticulum (ER) interactions. Hypothalamic ER stress has emerged as a causative factor for the development of leptin resistance, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we show that mitochondria-ER contacts in anorexigenic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in the hypothalamus are decreased in diet-induced obesity. POMC-specific ablation of Mfn2 resulted in loss of mitochondria-ER contacts, defective POMC processing, ER stress-induced leptin resistance, hyperphagia, reduced energy expenditure, and obesity. Pharmacological relieve of hypothalamic ER stress reversed these metabolic alterations. Our data establish MFN2 in POMC neurons as an essential regulator of systemic energy balance by fine-tuning the mitochondrial-ER axis homeostasis and function. This previously unrecognized role for MFN2 argues for a crucial involvement in mediating ER stress-induced leptin resistance. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

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