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Bodro M.,Hospital Universitari Of Bellvitge | Sabe N.,Hospital Universitari Of Bellvitge | Tubau F.,Research Center Biomedica En Red Of Enfermedades Respiratorias | Llado L.,Hospital Universitari Of Bellvitge | And 4 more authors.
Transplantation | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND: Although infections due to the six ESKAPE pathogens have recently been identified as a serious emerging problem, information regarding bacteremia caused by these organisms in solid-organ transplant (SOT) recipients is lacking. We sought to determine the frequency, risk factors, and outcomes of bacteremia due to drug-resistant ESKAPE (rESKAPE) organisms in liver, kidney, and heart adult transplant recipients. METHODS: All episodes of bacteremia prospectively documented in hospitalized SOT recipients from 2007 to 2012 were analyzed. RESULTS: Of 276 episodes of bacteremia, 54 (19.6%) were due to rESKAPE strains (vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium [0], methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus [5], extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae [10], carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii [8], carbapenem- and quinolone-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa [26], and derepressed chromosomal β-lactam and extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacter species [5]). Factors independently associated with rESKAPE bacteremia were prior transplantation, septic shock, and prior antibiotic therapy. Patients with rESKAPE bacteremia more often received inappropriate empirical antibiotic therapy than the others (41% vs. 21.6%; P=0.01). Overall case-fatality rate (30 days) was higher in patients with rESKAPE bacteremia (35.2% vs. 14.4%; P=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Bacteremia due to rESKAPE pathogens is frequent in SOT recipients and causes significant morbidity and mortality. rESKAPE organisms should be considered when selecting empirical antibiotic therapy for hospitalized SOT recipients presenting with septic shock, particularly those with prior transplantation and antibiotic use. Copyright © 2013 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Agusti A.,University of Barcelona | Agusti A.,Research Center Biomedica En Red Of Enfermedades Respiratorias | Vestbo J.,Copenhagen University | Vestbo J.,University of Manchester
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2011

Over the past decade there has been much research and interest in COPD. As a result, the understanding and management of the disease has improved significantly. Yet, there aremanyuncertainties and controversies that require further work. This review discusses these controversies and anticipates some of the changes that may occur in the near future in the field of COPD.

Monleon D.,Universitario Of Valencia | Morales J.M.,University of Valencia | Gonzalez-Segura A.,University of Valencia | Gonzalez-Darder J.M.,Universitario Of Valencia | And 4 more authors.
Cancer Research | Year: 2010

Meningiomas are often considered benign tumors curable by surgery, but most recurrent meningiomas correspond to histologic benign tumors. Because alterations in chromosome 14 among others have suggested clinical aggressiveness and recurrence, determining both the molecular phenotype and the genetic profile may help distinguish tumors with aggressive metabolism. The aim of this study was to achieve higher specificity in the detection of meningioma subgroups by measuring chromosomal instabilities by fluorescence in situ hybridization and cytogenetics and metabolic phenotypes by high-resolution magic angle spinning spectroscopy. We studied 46 meningioma biopsies with these methodologies. Of these, 34 were of WHO grade 1 and 12 were of WHO grade 2. Genetic analysis showed a subgroup of histologic benign meningioma with chromosomal instabilities. The metabolic phenotype of this subgroup indicated an aggressive metabolism resembling that observed for atypical meningioma. According to the metabolic profiles, these tumors had increased energy demand, higher hypoxic conditions, increased membrane turnover and cell proliferation, and possibly increased resistance to apoptosis. Taken together, our results identify distinct metabolic phenotypes for otherwise benign meningiomas based on cytogenetic studies and global metabolic profiles of intact tumors. Measuring the metabolic phenotype of meningioma intact biopsies at the same time as histopathologic analysis may allow the early detection of clinically aggressive tumors. ©2010 AACR.

Sanchez-Salcedo P.,University of Navarra | Wilson D.O.,University of Pittsburgh | De-Torres J.P.,University of Navarra | Weissfeld J.L.,University of Pittsburgh | And 11 more authors.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2015

Rationale: Lung cancer (LC) screening using low-dose chest computed tomography is now recommended in several guidelines using the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) entry criteria (age, 55-74; ≥30 pack-years; tobacco cessation within the previous 15 yr for former smokers). Concerns exist about their lack of sensitivity. Objectives: To evaluate the performance of NLST criteria in two different LC screening studies from Europe and the United States, and to explore the effect of using emphysema as a complementary criterion. Methods: Participants from the Pamplona International Early Lung Action Detection Program (P-IELCAP; n = 3,061) and the Pittsburgh Lung Screening Study (PLuSS; n = 3,638) were considered. LC cumulative frequencies, incidence densities, and annual detection rates were calculated in three hypothetical cohorts, including subjects whometNLST criteria alone, those withcomputed tomography-detected emphysema, and those who met NLST criteria and/or had emphysema. Measurements and Main Results: Thirty-six percent and 59% of P-IELCAP and PLuSS participants, respectively, met NLST criteria. Among these, higher LC incidence densities and detection rates were observed. However, applying NLST criteria to our original cohorts would miss asmany as 39% of all LC. Annual screening of subjects meeting either NLST criteria or having emphysema detected most cancers (88% and 95% of incident LC of P-IELCAP and PLuSS, respectively) despite reducing the number of screened participants by as much as 52%. Conclusions: LC screening based solely on NLST criteria could miss a significant number of LC cases. Combining NLST criteria and emphysema to select screening candidates results in higher LC detection rates and a lower number of cancers missed. Copyright © 2015 by the American Thoracic Society.

Martinez-Garcia M.-A.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Martinez-Garcia M.-A.,Research Center Biomedica En Red Of Enfermedades Respiratorias | Catalan-Serra P.,Pneumology Unit | Soler-Cataluna J.-J.,Pneumology Unit | And 6 more authors.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2012

Rationale: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a risk factor for cardiovascular death in middle-aged subjects, but it is not known whether it is also a risk factor in the elderly. Objectives: To investigate whether OSA is a risk factor for cardiovascular death and to assesswhether continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment is associated with a change in risk in the elderly. Methods: Prospective, observational study of a consecutive cohort of elderly patients (≥65 yr) studied for suspicion of OSA between 1998 and 2007. Patients with an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) less than 15 were the control group. OSA was defined as mild to moderate (AHI, 15-29) or severe (AHI, ≥30). Patients with OSA were classified as CPAP-treated (adherence ≥ 4 h/d) or untreated (adherence < 4 h/dor not prescribed). Participants were monitored until December 2009. The end point was cardiovascular death. A multivariate Cox survival analysis was used to determine the independent impact of OSA and CPAP treatment on cardiovascular mortality. Measurements and Main Results: A total of 939 elderly were studied (median follow-up, 69 mo). Compared with the control group, the fully adjusted hazard ratios for cardiovascular mortality were 2.25 (confidence interval [CI], 1.41 to 3.61) for the untreated severe OSA group, 0.93 (CI, 0.46 to 1.89) for the CPAP-treated group, and 1.38 (CI, 0.73 to 2.64) for the untreated mild to moderate OSA group. Conclusions: Severe OSA not treated with CPAP is associated with cardiovascular death in the elderly, and adequate CPAP treatment may reduce this risk. Copyright © 2012 by the American Thoracic Society.

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