Planaguma J.,University of Barcelona |
Haselmann H.,Jena University Hospital |
Mannara F.,University of Barcelona |
Petit-Pedrol M.,University of Barcelona |
And 13 more authors.
Annals of Neurology | Year: 2016
Objective: To demonstrate that ephrin-B2 (the ligand of EphB2 receptor) antagonizes the pathogenic effects of patients' N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antibodies on memory and synaptic plasticity. Methods: One hundred twenty-two C57BL/6J mice infused with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis or controls, with or without ephrin-B2, were investigated. CSF was infused through ventricular catheters connected to subcutaneous osmotic pumps over 14 days. Memory, behavioral tasks, locomotor activity, presence of human antibodies specifically bound to hippocampal NMDAR, and antibody effects on the density of cell-surface and synaptic NMDAR and EphB2 were examined at different time points using reported techniques. Short- and long-term synaptic plasticity were determined in acute brain sections; the Schaffer collateral pathway was stimulated and the field excitatory postsynaptic potentials were recorded in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Results: Mice infused with patients' CSF, but not control CSF, developed progressive memory deficit and depressive-like behavior along with deposits of NMDAR antibodies in the hippocampus. These findings were associated with a decrease of the density of cell-surface and synaptic NMDAR and EphB2, and marked impairment of long-term synaptic plasticity without altering short-term plasticity. Administration of ephrin-B2 prevented the pathogenic effects of the antibodies in all the investigated paradigms assessing memory, depressive-like behavior, density of cell-surface and synaptic NMDAR and EphB2, and long-term synaptic plasticity. Interpretation: Administration of ephrin-B2 prevents the pathogenic effects of anti-NMDAR encephalitis antibodies on memory and behavior, levels of cell-surface NMDAR, and synaptic plasticity. These findings reveal a strategy beyond immunotherapy to antagonize patients' antibody effects. Ann Neurol 2016;80:388–400. © 2016 American Neurological Association
Sevilla J.,Hospital Infantil Universitario Nino Jesus |
Sevilla J.,Research Center Biomedica en Red Enfermedades Raras |
Guillen M.,Hospital Infantil Universitario Nino Jesus |
Galvez E.,Hospital Infantil Universitario Nino Jesus |
And 13 more authors.
Clinical Laboratory | Year: 2016
Background: Only little detailed information has been published by a small number of centers on experiences with the technical aspects of "in vitro" large-scale graft manipulation technologies. Methods: We report our experiences with the graft engineering procedures performed and the results obtained after T cell depletion. We have analyzed data from 212 procedures (108 CD34+ cell selection and 104 CD3+/CD19+ cell depletion). Results: We conclude that the final cell products after selection or depletion were completely different with regard to CD34+ cell purity (95.8% vs. 1.52%). The CD34+ cell recovery after CD34+ cell selection is negatively affected when the initial leukocyte and/or CD34+ cell counts exceed the threshold defined by the manufacturer (68.9% vs. 45.2%, p < 0.01). However, the cell count threshold defined for the depletion technique could be exceeded without seriously affecting final results (86.1% vs. 86.4% for those with more or less than 40 × 109 leukocyte before the procedure; p = 0.7). Another important conclusion from this study is that in both CD34+ cell selection and CD3+/CD19+ cell depletion better results were reached after having gained experience by performing the procedures several times. This means that a learning process can be expected when using these in vitro graft manipulation procedures. Conclusions: It is extremely important to have experienced staff to perform these procedures. The expected results are different with each procedure so the decision on which of these T cell depletion approaches are used should be based on the characteristics of the final product wanted. © 2016, Verlag Klinisches Labor GmbH. All rights reserved.