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Brito V.,University of Barcelona | Brito V.,Institute dinvestigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer IDIBAPS | Brito V.,Research Center Biome Dica en Red Sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas | Puigdellivol M.,University of Barcelona | And 12 more authors.
Cell Death and Disease | Year: 2013

Neuroprotective therapies based on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) administration have been proposed for Huntington's disease (HD) treatment. However, our group has recently reported reduced levels of TrkB in HD mouse models and HD human brain suggesting that besides a decrease on BDNF levels a reduction of TrkB expression could also contribute to diminished neurotrophic support in HD. BDNF can also bind to p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75 NTR) modulating TrkB signaling. Therefore, in this study we have analyzed the levels of p75NTR in several HD models, as well as in HD human brain. Our data demonstrates a p75NTR/TrkB imbalance in the striatum of two different HD mouse models, HdhQ111/111 homozygous knockin mice and R6/1 mice that was also manifested in the putamen of HD patients. The imbalance between TrkB and p75NTR levels in a HD cellular model did not affect BDNF-mediated TrkB activation of prosurvival pathways but induced activation of apoptotic cascades as demonstrated by increased JNK phosphorylation. Moreover, BDNF failed to protect mutant huntingtin striatal cells transfected with p75NTR against NMDA-mediated excitotoxicity, which was associated with decreased Akt phosphorylation. Interestingly, lack of Akt activation following BDNF and NMDA treatment correlated with increased PP1 levels. Accordingly, pharmacological inhibition of PP1 by okadaic acid (OA) prevented mutant huntingtin striatal cell death induced by NMDA and BDNF. Altogether, our findings demonstrate that the p75NTR/TrkB imbalance induced by mutant huntingtin in striatal cells associated with the aberrant activity of PP1 disturbs BDNF neuroprotection likely contributing to increasing striatal vulnerability in HD. On the basis of this data we hypothesize that normalization of p75NTR and/or TrkB expression or their signaling will improve BDNF neuroprotective therapies in HD. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

Marques-Fernandez F.,Fundacio Institute Of Recerca Of Lhospital Universitari Of La Vall Dhebron | Marques-Fernandez F.,Institute Of Neurociencies | Marques-Fernandez F.,Research Center Biome Dica en Red Sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas | Planells-Ferrer L.,Fundacio Institute Of Recerca Of Lhospital Universitari Of La Vall Dhebron | And 21 more authors.
Cell Death and Disease | Year: 2013

Activation of tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 can trigger survival or apoptosis pathways. In many cellular models, including the neuronal cell model PC12, it has been demonstrated that inhibition of protein synthesis is sufficient to render cells sensitive to apoptosis induced by TNFα. The survival effect is linked to the translocation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) to the nucleus and activation of survival-related genes such as FLICE-like inhibitory protein long form (FLIP-L) or IAPs. Nonetheless, we previously reported an NF-κB-independent contribution of Bcl-xL to cell survival after TNFα treatment. Here, we demonstrate that NF-κB-induced increase in FLIP-L expression levels is essential for mitogen-activated protein kinases/ extracellular signal-regulated kinases (MAPK/ERK) activation. We demonstrate that FLIP-L behaves as a Raf-1 activator through both proteinprotein interaction and Raf-1 kinase activation, without the requirement of the classical Ras activation. Importantly, prevention of FLIP-L increase by NF-κB inhibition or knockdown of endogenous FLIP-L blocks MAPK/ERK activation after TNFα treatment. From a functional point of view, we show that inhibition of the MAPK/ERK pathway and the NF-κB pathway are equally relevant to render PC12 cells sensitive to cell death induced by TNFα. Apoptosis induced by TNFα under these conditions is dependent on jun nuclear kinase1/2 JNK1/2-dependent Bim upregulation. Therefore, we report a previously undescribed and essential role for MAPK/ERK activation by FLIP-L in the decision between cell survival and apoptosis upon TNFα stimulation. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

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