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Schneider M.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Romero P.M.,Research Center Atmosferica Of Izana | Hase F.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Blumenstock T.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | And 2 more authors.
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques | Year: 2010

At the Izaña Observatory, water vapour amounts have been measured routinely by different techniques for many years. We intercompare the total precipitable water vapour (PWV) amounts measured between 2005 and 2009 by a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, a Multifilter Rotating Shadow-band Radiometer (MFRSR), a Cimel sunphotometer, a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, and daily radiosondes (Vaisala RS92). The long-term characteristics of our study allows a reliable and extensive empirical quality assessment of long-term validity, which is an important prerequisite when applying the data to climate research. We estimate a PWV precision of 1% for the FTIR, about 10% for the MFRSR, Cimel, and GPS (when excluding rather dry conditions), and significantly better than 15% for the RS92 (the detection of different airmasses avoids a better constrained estimation). We show that the MFRSR, Cimel and GPS data quality depends on the atmospheric conditions (humid or dry) and that the restriction to clear-sky observations introduces a significant dry bias in the FTIR and Cimel data. In addition, we intercompare the water vapour profiles measured by the FTIR and the Vaisala RS92, which allows the conclusion that both experiments are able to detect lower to upper tropospheric water vapour mixing ratios with a precision of better than 15%. © 2012 Author(s).


Salvador P.,CIEMAT | Alonso-Perez S.,CSIC - Institute of Environmental Assessment And Water Research | Alonso-Perez S.,Research Center Atmosferica Of Izana | Alonso-Perez S.,University Europea Of Canarias | And 6 more authors.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2014

The occurrence of African dust outbreaks over different areas of the western Mediterranean Basin were identified on an 11-year period (2001-2011). The main atmospheric circulation patterns causing the transport of African air masses were characterized by means of an objective classification methodology of atmospheric variable fields. Next, the potential source areas of mineral dust, associated to each circulation pattern were identified by trajectory statistical methods. Finally, an impact index was calculated to estimate the incidence of the African dust outbreaks produced during each circulation pattern, in the areas of study.

Four circulation types were obtained (I-IV) and three main potential source areas of African dust were identified (Western Sahara and Morocco; Algeria; northeastern Algeria and Tunisia). The circulation pattern I (24% of the total number of episodic days) produced the transport of dust mainly in summer from Western Sahara, southern Morocco and Tunisia. The circulation pattern IV (33%) brings dust mainly from areas of northern and southern Algeria in summer and autumn, respectively. The circulation pattern II (31%) favored the transport of dust predominantly from northern Algeria, both in spring and summer. Finally, the circulation type III was the less frequently observed (12%). It occurred mainly in spring and with less intensity in winter, carrying dust from Western Sahara and southern Morocco.

Our findings point out that the most intense episodes over the western Mediterranean Basin were produced in the summer period by the circulation type I (over the western side of the Iberian Peninsula) and the circulation type IV (over the central and eastern sides of the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands). © Author(s) 2014.


Che H.,Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences | Xia X.,CAS Institute of Atmospheric Physics | Zhu J.,CAS Institute of Atmospheric Physics | Li Z.,CAS Institute of Remote Sensing | And 16 more authors.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2014

In January 2013, North China Plain experienced several serious haze events. Cimel sunphotometer measurements at seven sites over rural, suburban and urban regions of North China Plain from 1 to 30 January 2013 were used to further our understanding of spatial-temporal variation of aerosol optical parameters and aerosol radiative forcing (ARF). It was found that Aerosol Optical Depth at 500 nm (AOD500nm) during non-pollution periods at all stations was lower than 0.30 and increased significantly to greater than 1.00 as pollution events developed. The Angstrom exponent (Alpha) was larger than 0.80 for all stations most of the time. AOD500nm averages increased from north to south during both polluted and non-polluted periods on the three urban sites in Beijing. The fine mode AOD during pollution periods is about a factor of 2.5 times larger than that during the non-pollution period at urban sites but a factor of 5.0 at suburban and rural sites. The fine mode fraction of AOD 675nm was higher than 80% for all sites during January 2013. The absorption AOD675nm at rural sites was only about 0.01 during pollution periods, while ~0.03-0.07 and 0.01-0.03 during pollution and non-pollution periods at other sites, respectively. Single scattering albedo varied between 0.87 and 0.95 during January 2013 over North China Plain. The size distribution showed an obvious tri-peak pattern during the most serious period. The fine mode effective radius in the pollution period was about 0.01-0.08 μm larger than during non-pollution periods, while the coarse mode radius in pollution periods was about 0.06-0.38 μm less than that during non-pollution periods. The total, fine and coarse mode particle volumes varied by about 0.06-0.34 μm3, 0.03-0.23 μm3, and 0.03-0.10 μm3, respectively, throughout January 2013. During the most intense period (1-16 January), ARF at the surface exceeded -50 W m-2, -180 W m-2, and -200 W m-2 at rural, suburban, and urban sites, respectively. The ARF readings at the top of the atmosphere were approximately -30 W m-2 in rural and -40-60 W m-2 in urban areas. Positive ARF at the top of the atmosphere at the Huimin suburban site was found to be different from others as a result of the high surface albedo due to snow cover. © Author(s) 2014.


Gomez L.,CSIC - National Institute of Aerospace Technology | Gomez L.,CNRS Molecular and Atmospheric Spectrometry Group | Navarro-Comas M.,CSIC - National Institute of Aerospace Technology | Puentedura O.,CSIC - National Institute of Aerospace Technology | And 3 more authors.
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques | Year: 2014

A new approximation is proposed to estimate O3 and NO2 mixing ratios in the northern subtropical free troposphere (FT). The proposed method uses O4 slant column densities (SCDs) at horizontal and near-zenith geometries to estimate a station-level differential path. The modified geometrical approach (MGA) is a simple method that takes advantage of a very long horizontal path to retrieve mixing ratios in the range of a few pptv. The methodology is presented, and the possible limitations are discussed. Multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) high-mountain measurements recorded at the Izaña observatory (28° 18' N, 16° 29' W) are used in this study. The results show that under low aerosol loading, O3 and NO2 mixing ratios can be retrieved even at very low concentrations. The obtained mixing ratios are compared with those provided by in situ instrumentation at the observatory. The MGA reproduces the O3 mixing ratio measured by the in situ instrumentation with a difference of 28%. The different air masses scanned by each instrument are identified as a cause of the discrepancy between the O3 observed by MAX-DOAS and the in situ measurements. The NO2 is in the range of 20-40 ppt, which is below the detection limit of the in situ instrumentation, but it is in agreement with measurements from previous studies for similar conditions. © 2014 Author(s).


De Linares C.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | De Linares C.,Institute Diagnostico Ambiental y Estudios del Agua | Belmonte J.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Canela M.,IESE Business School | And 5 more authors.
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology | Year: 2010

Alternaria is a common airborne phytopathogenic fungus that may affect crops in the field or can cause decay of plant products. It can also cause diseases in animals and humans. The study of airborne Alternaria conidia is a necessary step for the control and prevention of the agricultural damage they can provoke. The aim of this paper is to contribute to model the presence and levels of Alternaria conidia in the air using a logistic regression model. Our study is conducted in 12 monitoring stations in Spain corresponding to three geographic regions with different bio-climatic characteristics, which show three different patterns of Alternaria conidia dynamics: a unique main sporulation season from mid spring to autumn in NE Spain, two defined periods (spring and autumn) in SE Spain and a uniform and constant presence in the Canary Islands. Regarding the abundance, NE Spain shows the highest values and the Canary Islands the lowest.Daily Alternaria conidia concentration is positively correlated to daily minimum temperature and daily temperature variation and negatively correlated to daily precipitation. Also, the occurrence of rain in the 3 previous days has a positive effect on Alternaria levels. These effects are modelled in this paper by means of logit regression equations. The three equations used apply to the presence of Alternaria conidia, and to the exceedance of thresholds of 10 and 30conidia/m3. The model is calibrated in the 12 stations using data from years 1995 to 2008 and validated with data from 2009 in 7 stations, showing a reasonable percentage of right prediction (average 78.6%, ranging from 61.3% to 92.5%). © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Viatte C.,University Paris Est Creteil | Gaubert B.,University Paris Est Creteil | Eremenko M.,University Paris Est Creteil | Hase F.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | And 7 more authors.
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques | Year: 2011

Ground-based Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) solar absorption spectroscopy is a powerful remote sensing technique providing information on the vertical distribution of various atmospheric constituents. This work presents the first evaluation of a mid-resolution ground-based FTIR to measure tropospheric ozone, independently of stratospheric ozone. This is demonstrated using a new atmospheric observatory (named OASIS for "Observations of the Atmosphere by Solar absorption Infrared Spectroscopy"), installed in Créteil (France). The capacity of the technique to separate stratospheric and tropospheric ozone is demonstrated. Daily mean tropospheric ozone columns derived from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) and from OASIS measurements are compared for summer 2009 and a good agreement of-5.6 (±16.1) % is observed. Also, a qualitative comparison between in-situ surface ozone measurements and OASIS data reveals OASIS's capacity to monitor seasonal tropospheric ozone variations, as well as ozone pollution episodes in summer 2009 around Paris. Two extreme pollution events are identified (on the 1 July and 6 August 2009) for which ozone partial columns from OASIS and predictions from a regional air-quality model (CHIMERE) are compared following strict criteria of temporal and spatial coincidence. An average bias of 0.2%, a mean square error deviation of 7.6%, and a correlation coefficient of 0.91 is found between CHIMERE and OASIS, demonstrating the potential of a mid-resolution FTIR instrument in ground-based solar absorption geometry for tropospheric ozone monitoring. © 2011 Author(s).


Viatte C.,University Paris Est Creteil | Schneider M.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Schneider M.,Research Center Atmosferica Of Izana | Redondas A.,Research Center Atmosferica Of Izana | And 6 more authors.
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques | Year: 2011

An intercomparison of ozone total column measurements derived from various platforms is presented in this work. Satellite data from Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI), Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME-2) are compared with data from two ground-based spectrometers (Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometer FTIR and Brewer), located at the Network for Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC) super-site of Izaña (Tenerife), measured during a campaign from March to June 2009. These ground-based observing systems have already been demonstrated to perform consistent, precise and accurate ozone total column measurements. An excellent agreement between ground-based and OMI/GOME-2 data is observed. Results from two different algorithms for deriving IASI ozone total column are also compared: the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT/ESA) operational algorithm and the LISA (Laboratoire Inter-universitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques) algorithm. A better agreement was found with LISA's analytical approach based on an altitude-dependent Tikhonov-Philips regularization: correlations are 0.94 and 0.89 compared to FTIR and Brewer, respectively; while the operational IASI ozone columns (based on neural network analysis) show correlations of 0.90 and 0.85, respectively, compared to the O3 columns obtained from FTIR and Brewer. © Author(s) 2011.


Puentedura O.,CSIC - National Institute of Aerospace Technology | Gil M.,CSIC - National Institute of Aerospace Technology | Saiz-Lopez A.,Laboratory for Atmospheric and Climate Science | Hay T.,Laboratory for Atmospheric and Climate Science | And 5 more authors.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2012

Iodine monoxide (IO) differential slant column densities (DSCD) have been retrieved from a new multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) instrument deployed at the Izaña subtropical observatory as part of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC) programme. The station is located at 2370 m a.s.l., well above the trade wind inversion that limits the top of the marine boundary layer, and hence is representative of the free troposphere. We report daily observations from May to August 2010 at different viewing angles. During this period, the spectral signature of IO was unequivocally detected on every day of measurement. A mean IO DSCD of 1.52Ã-10 13 molecules cm -2 was observed at the 5ð instrument elevation angle (IEA) on clear days using a single zenith reference for the reported period, with a day-to-day variability of 33% at one standard deviation. Based on the simulation of the DSCDs using radiative transfer calculations with five different hypothesized IO profiles, the IO mixing ratio is estimated to range between 0.2 and 0.4 pptv in the free troposphere. Episodes of Saharan dust outbreaks were also observed, with large increases in the DSCDs at higher IEA, suggesting an enhancement of IO inside the dust cloud. © 2012 Author(s).

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