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Heier C.,University of Graz | Taschler U.,University of Graz | Rengachari S.,University of Graz | Oberer M.,University of Graz | And 6 more authors.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids

Monoacylglycerols (MAGs) are short-lived intermediates of glycerolipid metabolism. Specific molecular species, such as 2-arachidonoylglycerol, which is a potent activator of cannabinoid receptors, may also function as lipid signaling molecules. In mammals, enzymes hydrolyzing MAG to glycerol and fatty acids, resembling the final step in lipolysis, or esterifying MAG to diacylglycerol, are well known; however, despite the high level of conservation of lipolysis, the corresponding activities in yeast have not been characterized yet. Here we provide evidence that the protein Yju3p functions as a potent MAG hydrolase in yeast. Cellular MAG hydrolase activity was decreased by more than 90% in extracts of Yju3p-deficient cells, indicating that Yju3p accounts for the vast majority of this activity in yeast. Loss of this activity was restored by heterologous expression of murine monoglyceride lipase (MGL). Since y. ju3 mutants accumulated MAG in vivo only at very low concentrations, we considered the possibility that MAGs are re-esterified into DAG by acyltransferases. Indeed, cellular MAG levels were further increased in mutant cells lacking Yju3p and Dga1p or Lro1p acyltransferase activities. In conclusion, our studies suggest that catabolic and anabolic reactions affect cellular MAG levels. Yju3p is the functional orthologue of mammalian MGL and is required for efficient degradation of MAG in yeast. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

Mueller M.,University of Graz | Kratzer R.,University of Graz | Schiller M.,University of Graz | Slavica A.,Applied Biocatalysis Research Center | And 4 more authors.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Proteins and Proteomics

Oxidative modification of Trigonopsis variabilis d-amino acid oxidase in vivo is traceable as the conversion of Cys108 into a stable cysteine sulfinic acid, causing substantial loss of activity and thermostability of the enzyme. To simulate native and modified oxidase each as a microheterogeneity-resistant entity, we replaced Cys108 individually by a serine (C108S) and an aspartate (C108D), and characterized the purified variants with regard to their biochemical and kinetic properties, thermostability, and reactivity towards oxidation by hypochlorite. Tandem MS analysis of tryptic peptides derived from a hypochlorite-treated inactive preparation of recombinant wild-type oxidase showed that Cys108 was converted into cysteine sulfonic acid, mimicking the oxidative modification of native enzyme as isolated. Colorimetric titration of protein thiol groups revealed that in the presence of ammonium benzoate (0.12 mM), the two muteins were not oxidized at cysteines whereas in the wild-type enzyme, one thiol group was derivatized. Each site-directed replacement caused a conformational change in d-amino acid oxidase, detected with an assortment of probes, and resulted in a turnover number for the O2-dependent reaction with D-Met which in comparison with the corresponding wild-type value was decreased two- and threefold for C108S and C108D, respectively. Kinetic analysis of thermal denaturation at 50 °C was used to measure the relative contributions of partial unfolding and cofactor dissociation to the overall inactivation rate in each of the three enzymes. Unlike wild-type, C108S and C108D released the cofactor in a quasi-irreversible manner and were therefore not stabilized by external FAD against loss of activity. The results support a role of the anionic side chain of Cys108 in the fine-tuning of activity and stability of d-amino acid oxidase, explaining why C108S was a surprisingly poor mimic of the native enzyme. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Juajun O.,Suranaree University of Technology | Juajun O.,Sudan University of Science and Technology | Nguyen T.-H.,Applied Biocatalysis Research Center | Nguyen T.-H.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | And 5 more authors.
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

The gene encoding homodimeric β-galactosidase (lacA) from Bacillus licheniformis DSM 13 was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and the resulting recombinant enzyme was characterized in detail. The optimum temperature and pH of the enzyme, for both o-nitrophenyl-β-d-galactoside (oNPG) and lactose hydrolysis, were 50°C and 6.5, respectively. The recombinant enzyme is stable in the range of pH 5 to 9 at 37°C and over a wide range of temperatures (4-42°C) at pH 6.5 for up to 1 month. The K m values of LacA for lactose and oNPG are 169 and 13.7 mM, respectively, and it is strongly inhibited by the hydrolysis products, i.e., glucose and galactose. The monovalent ions Na+ and K+ in the concentration range of 1-100 mM as well as the divalent metal cations Mg2+, Mn2+, and Ca2+ at a concentration of 1 mM slightly activate enzyme activity. This enzyme can be beneficial for application in lactose hydrolysis especially at elevated temperatures due to its pronounced temperature stability; however, the transgalactosylation potential of this enzyme for the production of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) from lactose was low, with only 12% GOS (w/w) of total sugars obtained when the initial lactose concentration was 200 g/L. © 2010 Springer-Verlag. Source

Abad S.,Applied Biocatalysis Research Center | Kitz K.,Applied Biocatalysis Research Center | Hormann A.,University of Graz | Schreiner U.,Applied Biocatalysis Research Center | And 3 more authors.
Biotechnology Journal

Pichia pastoris is a preferred host for heterologous protein production. Expression cassettes are usually integrated into the genome of this methylotrophic yeast. This manuscript describes a method for fast and reliable gene copy number determinations for P. pastoris expression strains. We believe that gene copy number determinations are important for all researchers working with P. pastoris and also many other research groups using similar gene integration techniques for the transformation of other yeasts. The described method uses real-time PCR to quantify the integrated expression cassettes. Similar methods were employed previously for other host systems such as animal and plant cells but no such method comparing different detection methods and describing details for yeast analysis by quantitative PCR is known to us, especially for methylotrophic yeasts such as P. pastoris. Neglecting gene copy numbers can easily lead to false interpretations of experimental results from codon optimization or promoter studies and co-expression of helper proteins as demonstrated in an application example, which is also described here. © 2010 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. Source

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