Medical Research Council Center for Neuropsychiatric Genetics and Genomics

Medical Research Council Center for Neuropsychiatric Genetics and Genomics

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Ikeda M.,Medical Research Council Center for Neuropsychiatric Genetics and Genomics | Ikeda M.,Aichi University | Aleksic B.,Nagoya University | Aleksic B.,Japan Science and Technology Agency | And 19 more authors.
Biological Psychiatry | Year: 2010

Background: Copy number variants (CNVs) have been shown to increase the risk to develop schizophrenia. The best supported findings are at 1q21.1, 15q11.2, 15q13.3, and 22q11.2 and deletions at the gene neurexin 1 (NRXN1). Methods: In this study, we used Affymetrix 5.0 arrays to investigate the role of rare CNVs in 575 patients with schizophrenia and 564 control subjects from Japan. Results: There was a nonsignificant trend for excess of rare CNVs in schizophrenia (p = .087); however, we did not confirm the previously implicated association for very large CNVs (>500 kilobase [kb]) in this population. We provide support for three previous findings in schizophrenia, as we identified one deletion in a case at 1q21.1, one deletion within NRXN1, and four duplications in cases and one in a control subject at 16p13.1, a locus first implicated in autism and later in schizophrenia. Conclusions: In this population, we support some of the previous findings in schizophrenia but could not find an increased burden of very large (>500 kb) CNVs, which was proposed recently. However, we provide support for the role of CNVs at 16p13.1, 1q21.1, and NRXN1. © 2010 Society of Biological Psychiatry.

Millan M.J.,Institute Of Recherche Idr Servier | Andrieux A.,Grenoble Institute des Neurosciences | Bartzokis G.,University of California at Los Angeles | Cadenhead K.,University of California at San Diego | And 21 more authors.
Nature Reviews Drug Discovery | Year: 2016

Despite a lack of recent progress in the treatment of schizophrenia, our understanding of its genetic and environmental causes has considerably improved, and their relationship to aberrant patterns of neurodevelopment has become clearer. This raises the possibility that 'disease-modifying' strategies could alter the course to-and of-this debilitating disorder, rather than simply alleviating symptoms. A promising window for course-altering intervention is around the time of the first episode of psychosis, especially in young people at risk of transition to schizophrenia. Indeed, studies performed in both individuals at risk of developing schizophrenia and rodent models for schizophrenia suggest that pre-diagnostic pharmacotherapy and psychosocial or cognitive-behavioural interventions can delay or moderate the emergence of psychosis. Of particular interest are 'hybrid' strategies that both relieve presenting symptoms and reduce the risk of transition to schizophrenia or another psychiatric disorder. This Review aims to provide a broad-based consideration of the challenges and opportunities inherent in efforts to alter the course of schizophrenia. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

PubMed | Medical Research Council Center for Neuropsychiatric Genetics and Genomics, Neuroscience and Mental Health Research Institute, Neuroscience And Mental Health Research Institute Electronic Address and University of Cardiff
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Biological psychiatry | Year: 2014

Recent large-scale genomic studies have revealed two broad classes of risk alleles for schizophrenia: a polygenic component of risk mediated through multiple common risk variants and rarer more highly penetrant submicroscopic chromosomal deletions and duplications, known as copy number variants. The focus of this review is on the emerging findings from the latter and subsequent exome sequencing data of smaller, deleterious single nucleotide variants and indels. In these studies, schizophrenia patients were found to have enriched de novo mutations in genes belonging to the postsynaptic density at glutamatergic synapses, particularly components of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor signaling complex, including the PSD-95 complex, activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein interactors, the fragile X mental retardation protein complex, voltage-gated calcium channels, and genes implicated in actin cytoskeletal dynamics. The convergence of these implicated genes onto a coherent biological pathway at the synapse, with a specific role in plasticity, provides a significant advance in understanding pathogenesis and points to new targets for biological investigation. We consider the implications of these studies in the context of existing genetic data and the potential need to reassess diagnostic boundaries of neuropsychiatric disorders before discussing ways forward for more directed mechanistic studies to develop stratified, novel therapeutic approaches in the future.

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