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Stewart L.A.,Research Branch | Power J.,Carleton University
Journal of Interpersonal Violence | Year: 2014

This study presents data on male perpetrators of domestic violence (DV) in the Correctional Service of Canada (CSC) using two samples: (a) a snapshot of all male offenders in CSC who had been assessed for DV (n = 15,166) and (b) a cumulative sample of male offenders in CSC from 2002-2010 who had been assessed as moderate or high risk for further DV (n = 4,261) DV offenders were compared to a cohort sample of non-DV offenders (n= 4,261). Analyses were disaggregated for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal offenders. Results indicated that 40% of the federal male population had a suspected history of DV and were therefore screened in for in-depth DV risk assessment. Of these, 45% were assessed as moderate or high risk for future DV. DV offenders had higher risk and criminogenic need ratings, more learning disabilities, more mental health problems, and more extensive criminal histories than those without DV histories. Aboriginal DV offenders had high levels of alcohol dependence, suggesting a need for substance abuse treatment as part of DV programming. Most federal offenders with DV histories would be described as belonging to the Antisocial/Generalized Aggressive typology and, therefore, adhering to the Risk-Need-Responsivity principles of the effective correctional literature, cognitive-behavioral treatment that focuses on teaching skills of self-management, and changing attitudes supporting relationship violence would be recommended. © 2014 The Author(s).


News Article | October 26, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

For the first time, National Institutes of Health (NIH) researchers have demonstrated in mice that gene therapy may be the best method for correcting the single faulty gene that causes Niemann-Pick disease, type C1 (NPC1). The gene therapy involved inserting a functional copy of the NPC1 gene into mice with the disease; the treated animals were then found to have less severe NPC1 symptoms. The study, led by researchers at NIH's National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) and the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, was published Oct. 26, 2016, in the journal Human Molecular Genetics. Niemann-Pick disease is a rare and fatal disorder of the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord) that has no cure. The disease occurs when a faulty housekeeping gene fails to remove cell waste, like lipids and cholesterol. The accumulation of waste in the spleen, liver and brain causes progressive deterioration in the intellectual and motor functions. It also shortens patient's lives, as people with Niemann-Pick disease typically die in their teens. There are several types of Niemann-Pick disease; this study focused on mice that had been bred with a faulty NPC1 gene to model Niemann-Pick disease, type C1. The researchers' goal was to correct the faulty NPC1 gene in as many cells and organs as possible, with a strong focus on the brain. To do this, they used a non-disease-causing virus called the adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9) to transfer functioning NPC1 to the cells. The AAV9 containing a functioning NPC1 gene successfully crossed the blood-brain barrier, reaching cells in the brain and elsewhere. Once inside cells, the normal NPC1 gene was then able to make the functional NPC1 protein to correct the cell defects. With a single injection, mice showed improvements in motor coordination, weight gain and longevity compared to those without this gene therapy. The effect of gene therapy equaled that of a drug called VTS-270, which has been evaluated in preclinical and clinical studies at numerous academic labs. However, to be effective, the VTS-270 compound has to be given for the life of the mouse. The team is now investigating if a combination of the two therapies will improve results. "We're very encouraged by this preliminary work," said William J. Pavan, Ph.D., senior investigator in the NHGRI Genetic Disease Research Branch. "The gene therapy is treating the root of the problem, the defective gene." "Our work in NPC1 mice may help lead to human clinical trials and eventually FDA approval for gene therapy as a treatment for NPC1 disease," said Charles P. Venditti, M.D., Ph.D., senior investigator in the NHGRI Medical Genomics and Metabolic Genetics Branch. "For NPC1 patients, gene therapy could halt progression of the disease, improve the quality of their lives and, hopefully, increase the patient's life span." The researchers work on gene therapy for NPC1 also has the potential to treat genetic disorders with some similar features. These might include mucolipidosis IV, Batten disease and Danon disease, researchers wrote. The advanced open access article can be found at: http://bit. . National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) is one of the 27 institutes and centers at the NIH, an agency of the Department of Health and Human Services. The NHGRI Division of Intramural Research develops and implements technology to understand, diagnose and treat genomic and genetic diseases. Additional information about NHGRI can be found at: http://www. . About the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD): NICHD conducts and supports research in the United States and throughout the world on fetal, infant and child development; maternal, child and family health; reproductive biology and population issues; and medical rehabilitation. For more information, visit NICHD's website. National Institutes of Health (NIH): NIH, the nation's medical research agency, includes 27 institutes and centers and is a component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. NIH is the primary federal agency conducting and supporting basic, clinical, and translational medical research, and is investigating the causes, treatments, and cures for both common and rare diseases. For more information about NIH and its programs, visit http://www. .


Castro L.R.,University of Magdalena | Colgan D.J.,Research Branch
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2010

This is the first report of the mitochondrial gene order and almost-complete DNA sequence of a representative of the Neritimorpha, the highest-ranking gastropod clade lacking such data. Mitochondrial gene order in Nerita is largely plesiomorphic. Its only difference from the cephalopod Octopus vulgaris is a tRNA transposition shared by Vetigastropoda and Caenogastropoda. Genome arrangements were not informative enough to resolve the evolutionary relationships of Neritimorpha, Vetigastropoda and Caenogastropoda. The sister-group taxon of Neritimorpha varied in sequence-based analyses. Some suggested that Neritimorpha is the sister group of Caenogastropoda plus Heterobranchia and some that Neritimorpha and Caenogastropoda are sister groups. No analysis significantly supported the hypothesis that Vetigastroda is more closely related to Caenogastropoda than is Neritimorpha. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.


Galon J.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Galon J.,University of Paris Descartes | Galon J.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Angell H.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 5 more authors.
Immunity | Year: 2013

Numerous analyses of large patient cohorts identified specific patterns of immune activation associated with patient survival. We established these as the immune contexture, encompassing the type, functional orientation, density, and location of adaptive immune cells within distinct tumor regions. Based on the immune contexture, a standardized, powerful immune stratification system, the Immunoscore, was delineated. The immune contexture is characterized by immune signatures also observed in association with the broader phenomenon of immune-mediated, tissue-specific destruction. We defined these as the immunologic constant of rejection. Predictive, prognostic, and mechanistic immune signatures overlap, and a continuum of intratumor immune reactions exists. The balance between tumor cell growth and elimination may be tippedupon a crescendo induced by immune manipulations aimed at enhancing naturally occurring immunosurveillance. Here, we propose a broader immunological interpretation of these three concepts-immune contexture, Immunoscore, and immunologic constant of rejection-that segregates oncogenic processes independently of their tissue origin. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Terri-Lynne S.,Research Branch | Rick R.,University of Regina
Journal of Offender Rehabilitation | Year: 2011

A comparison of the characteristics of 337 Canadian adult female gang offenders with a matched sample of women offenders showed that they were more likely to have been sentenced for violent offenses, had a greater number of prior youth and criminal convictions, and served prior terms of incarceration. Gang members were also assessed as having higher overall needs and risks, lower levels of motivation for change, and a higher risk of recidivism. An important first step in developing rehabilitative programs to respond to their needs is to better understand these attributes. Gang management strategies should also be informed by what the research tells us about these gang members. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Chen W.-H.,Research Branch | Myles J.,University of Toronto | Picot G.,Research Branch
Urban Studies | Year: 2012

Higher-income neighbourhoods in Canada's eight largest cities flourished economically during the past quarter-century, while lower-income communities stagnated. This paper identifies some of the underlying processes that led to this outcome. Increasing family income inequality drove much of the rise in neighbourhood inequality. Increased spatial economic segregation, the increasing tendency of 'like to live nearby like', also played a role. It is shown that these changes originated in the labour market. Changes in investment, pension income and government transfers played a very minor role. Yet it was not unemployment that differentiated the richer from poorer neighbourhoods. Rather, it was the type of job found, particularly the annual earnings generated. The end result has been little improvement in economic resources in poor neighbourhoods during a period of substantial economic growth, and a rise in neighbourhood income inequality. © 2011 Urban Studies Journal Limited.


Usher A.M.,Research Branch | Stewart L.A.,Research Branch | Wilton G.,Research Branch
International Journal of Law and Psychiatry | Year: 2013

Previous research has shown that a significant percentage of offenders are affected by adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its related symptoms, however it is unknown the extent to which this disorder affects federal inmates in Canada and the impact ADHD has on key correctional outcomes. Four hundred and ninety-seven male federal offenders were assessed at intake over a fourteen month period using the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS). Approximately 16.5% scored in the highest range, which is consistent with the clinical threshold for diagnosis for the disorder; a further 25.2% reported sub-threshold symptoms in the moderate range. ADHD symptoms were found to be associated with unstable job history, presence of a learning disability, lower educational attainment, substance abuse, higher criminal risk and need levels, and other mental health problems. ADHD symptoms were also found to predict institutional misconduct. Additionally, offenders with high levels of ADHD symptomatology fared more poorly on release to the community. Implications for institutional behavior management and the need for additional resources and adapted interventions are discussed. © 2013.


Kohler F.,Research Branch
Raffles Bulletin of Zoology | Year: 2014

Six land snail species from across the Lesser Sunda Islands have so far been assigned to the camaenid genus Rhagada Albers, 1860. Previous taxonomic treatments have emphasised shell features, which were usually inferred from small series of specimens. Based on the study of newly collected, ethanol preserved material from various islands, I compared the penial anatomy of four species and analysed the mitochondrial differentiation of three. In addition, I completely review the previous literature on the Lesser Sunda species. Six previously named species are recognised as full species: R. solorensis (Martens, 1863) from Solor, R. colona (Martens, 1877) from Dana Island, R. fl oresiana (Martens, 1891) from Flores, R. supracostulata (Schepman, 1892) from Sumba, R. marghitae Falconieri, 1995 from Nusa Penida, and R. setzeri Maassen, 2009 from Alor. In addition, a new subspecies, R. setzeri atauroensis n. subsp. from Atauro Island, Timor-Leste, and a new species, Rhagada abbasi n. sp. from Lembata Island, are described based on morphological and molecular evidence. © National University of Singapore.


Kohler F.,Research Branch | Johnson M.S.,University of Western Australia
Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society | Year: 2012

By complementing two independent systematic studies published recently on the Western Australian land snail Amplirhagada, we compare levels of morphological variation in shells and genitalia with those in the mitochondrial markers cytochrome c oxidase (COI) and 16S to evaluate the utility of mtDNA markers for delimiting species. We found that penial morphology and mitochondrial divergence are generally highly consistent in delimiting species, while shells have little overall taxonomic utility in these snails. In addition to this qualitative correspondence, there is almost no overlap between intraspecific and interspecific genetic distances in COI, with the highest intraspecific and lowest interspecific distance being 6%. This value is twice the general level suggested as a DNA barcode threshold by some authors and higher than the best average found in stylommatophoran land snails. Although in Amplirhagada land snails DNA barcoding may provide meaningful information as a first-pass approach towards species delimitation, we argue that this is due only to specific evolutionary circumstances that facilitated a long-termed separate evolution of mitochondrial lineages along spatial patterns. However, because in general the amounts of morphological and mitochondrial differentiation of species depend on their evolutionary history and age, the mode of speciation, distributional patterns and ecological adaptations, and absence or presence of mechanisms that prevent gene flow across species limits, the applicability of DNA barcoding has to be confirmed by morphological studies for each single group anew. Based on evidence from both molecular and morphological markers, we describe six new species from the Bonaparte Archipelago and revise the taxonomy of a further two. © 2012 The Linnean Society of London.


Matheson F.I.,Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute | Doherty S.,Research Branch | Grant B.A.,Research Branch
American Journal of Public Health | Year: 2011

Objectives: We evaluated the effectiveness of the Community Relapse Prevention and Maintenance (CRPM) program, developed by Correctional Service Canada to better meet the needs of women offenders with drug problems. Methods: Using survival analysis, we investigated the association between exposure and nonexposure to CRPM and return to custody among a national sample of women offenders released from 1 of 6 federal institutions across Canada during the period May 1, 1998 to August 31, 2007. Results: After control for other risk factors, women who were not exposed to CRPM were 10 times more likely than were women exposedtoCRPM toreturn to custody 1 year after release from prison, with more than a third returning to prison within the first 6 months. Conclusions: Aftercare is a critical component of a woman's support system after she leaves prison. Strategies that improve access to community aftercare are imperative for improving the life chances and health of these women.

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