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Galon J.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Galon J.,University of Paris Descartes | Galon J.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Angell H.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 5 more authors.
Immunity | Year: 2013

Numerous analyses of large patient cohorts identified specific patterns of immune activation associated with patient survival. We established these as the immune contexture, encompassing the type, functional orientation, density, and location of adaptive immune cells within distinct tumor regions. Based on the immune contexture, a standardized, powerful immune stratification system, the Immunoscore, was delineated. The immune contexture is characterized by immune signatures also observed in association with the broader phenomenon of immune-mediated, tissue-specific destruction. We defined these as the immunologic constant of rejection. Predictive, prognostic, and mechanistic immune signatures overlap, and a continuum of intratumor immune reactions exists. The balance between tumor cell growth and elimination may be tippedupon a crescendo induced by immune manipulations aimed at enhancing naturally occurring immunosurveillance. Here, we propose a broader immunological interpretation of these three concepts-immune contexture, Immunoscore, and immunologic constant of rejection-that segregates oncogenic processes independently of their tissue origin. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source


Terri-Lynne S.,Research Branch | Rick R.,University of Regina
Journal of Offender Rehabilitation | Year: 2011

A comparison of the characteristics of 337 Canadian adult female gang offenders with a matched sample of women offenders showed that they were more likely to have been sentenced for violent offenses, had a greater number of prior youth and criminal convictions, and served prior terms of incarceration. Gang members were also assessed as having higher overall needs and risks, lower levels of motivation for change, and a higher risk of recidivism. An important first step in developing rehabilitative programs to respond to their needs is to better understand these attributes. Gang management strategies should also be informed by what the research tells us about these gang members. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source


Stewart L.A.,Research Branch | Power J.,Carleton University
Journal of Interpersonal Violence | Year: 2014

This study presents data on male perpetrators of domestic violence (DV) in the Correctional Service of Canada (CSC) using two samples: (a) a snapshot of all male offenders in CSC who had been assessed for DV (n = 15,166) and (b) a cumulative sample of male offenders in CSC from 2002-2010 who had been assessed as moderate or high risk for further DV (n = 4,261) DV offenders were compared to a cohort sample of non-DV offenders (n= 4,261). Analyses were disaggregated for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal offenders. Results indicated that 40% of the federal male population had a suspected history of DV and were therefore screened in for in-depth DV risk assessment. Of these, 45% were assessed as moderate or high risk for future DV. DV offenders had higher risk and criminogenic need ratings, more learning disabilities, more mental health problems, and more extensive criminal histories than those without DV histories. Aboriginal DV offenders had high levels of alcohol dependence, suggesting a need for substance abuse treatment as part of DV programming. Most federal offenders with DV histories would be described as belonging to the Antisocial/Generalized Aggressive typology and, therefore, adhering to the Risk-Need-Responsivity principles of the effective correctional literature, cognitive-behavioral treatment that focuses on teaching skills of self-management, and changing attitudes supporting relationship violence would be recommended. © 2014 The Author(s). Source


Kohler F.,Research Branch | Johnson M.S.,University of Western Australia
Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society | Year: 2012

By complementing two independent systematic studies published recently on the Western Australian land snail Amplirhagada, we compare levels of morphological variation in shells and genitalia with those in the mitochondrial markers cytochrome c oxidase (COI) and 16S to evaluate the utility of mtDNA markers for delimiting species. We found that penial morphology and mitochondrial divergence are generally highly consistent in delimiting species, while shells have little overall taxonomic utility in these snails. In addition to this qualitative correspondence, there is almost no overlap between intraspecific and interspecific genetic distances in COI, with the highest intraspecific and lowest interspecific distance being 6%. This value is twice the general level suggested as a DNA barcode threshold by some authors and higher than the best average found in stylommatophoran land snails. Although in Amplirhagada land snails DNA barcoding may provide meaningful information as a first-pass approach towards species delimitation, we argue that this is due only to specific evolutionary circumstances that facilitated a long-termed separate evolution of mitochondrial lineages along spatial patterns. However, because in general the amounts of morphological and mitochondrial differentiation of species depend on their evolutionary history and age, the mode of speciation, distributional patterns and ecological adaptations, and absence or presence of mechanisms that prevent gene flow across species limits, the applicability of DNA barcoding has to be confirmed by morphological studies for each single group anew. Based on evidence from both molecular and morphological markers, we describe six new species from the Bonaparte Archipelago and revise the taxonomy of a further two. © 2012 The Linnean Society of London. Source


Kohler F.,Research Branch
Raffles Bulletin of Zoology | Year: 2014

Six land snail species from across the Lesser Sunda Islands have so far been assigned to the camaenid genus Rhagada Albers, 1860. Previous taxonomic treatments have emphasised shell features, which were usually inferred from small series of specimens. Based on the study of newly collected, ethanol preserved material from various islands, I compared the penial anatomy of four species and analysed the mitochondrial differentiation of three. In addition, I completely review the previous literature on the Lesser Sunda species. Six previously named species are recognised as full species: R. solorensis (Martens, 1863) from Solor, R. colona (Martens, 1877) from Dana Island, R. fl oresiana (Martens, 1891) from Flores, R. supracostulata (Schepman, 1892) from Sumba, R. marghitae Falconieri, 1995 from Nusa Penida, and R. setzeri Maassen, 2009 from Alor. In addition, a new subspecies, R. setzeri atauroensis n. subsp. from Atauro Island, Timor-Leste, and a new species, Rhagada abbasi n. sp. from Lembata Island, are described based on morphological and molecular evidence. © National University of Singapore. Source

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