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Ding G.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Ding G.,Tongji University | Yu J.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Cui C.,Research Base of Key Laboratory of Surveillance and Early warning on Infectious Disease in China CDC | And 5 more authors.
Environmental Research

The use of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) has been dramatically increasing over the last two decades in China. Animal studies suggest that prenatal exposure to PBDEs may result in neurodevelopmental deficits. Two hundred thirty-two participating mothers were recruited from a prospective birth cohort in rural northern China between September 2010 and February 2012. We analyzed 232 cord blood specimens for selected PBDE congeners and examined their association with children's developmental quotients (DQs) at 12 (n=192) and 24 (n=149) months of age based on the Gesell Developmental Schedules (motor, adaptive, language, and social domains). There were no substantial differences by demographic characteristics among the three time points: baseline, 12 and 24 months of age. Median cord blood levels of PBDE congeners 47, 99, 100, and 153 were 3.71, 6.70, 2.63, and 2.19. ng/g lipid, respectively. At 12 months of age, neither the individual nor total (the sum of BDEs 47, 99, 100, and 153) congener levels were associated with any of the four domain DQs. However, at 24 months of age, a 10-fold increase in BDE-99 levels was associated with a 2.16-point decrease [95% confidence interval (CI): -4.52, -0.20] in language domain DQs and a 10-fold increase in BDE-47 levels was associated with a 1.89-point decrease (95% CI: -3.75, -0.03) in social domain DQs. Prenatal exposure to PBDEs was associated with lower DQs in young children. The results contribute to the growing evidence that PBDEs could act as developmental neurotoxicants, and the findings have implications for children's environmental health in China. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source

Sun Q.,Research Base of Key Laboratory of Surveillance and Early warning on Infectious Disease in China CDC
BMC public health

BACKGROUND: More than 200 students and teachers at a boarding school in Shanghai developed acute gastroenteritis in December, 2012. The transmission mode remained largely unknown. An immediate epidemiological investigation was conducted to identify it.METHODS: Using a retrospective cohort design, we investigated demographic characteristics, school environment, and previous contacts with people who had diarrhea and/or vomiting, drinking water conditions, recalls of food consumption in the school cafeteria, hand-washing habits and eating habits. Rectal swabs of the new cases and food handlers as well as water and food samples were collected to test potential bacteria and viruses. Norovirus was detected by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).RESULTS: A total of 278 cases developed gastrointestinal symptoms in this outbreak, and the overall attack rate was 13.9%. The main symptoms included vomiting (50.0%), abdominal cramps (40.3%), nausea (27.0%), diarrhea (6.8%) and fever (6.8%). Twenty rectal swab samples were detected as Norovirus-positive, including 11 from student cases and 9 from asymptomatic food handlers (non-cases). Among environmental surface samples from the kitchen, 8 samples were also detected as Norovirus-positive. The genotypes of viral strains were the same (GII) in patients, asymptomatic food handlers and environmental surfaces. Other samples, including rectal swabs, water samples and food samples were negative for any bacteria and other tested viruses. Asymptomatic food handlers may have contaminated the cooked food during the food preparation.CONCLUSION: The study detected that the outbreak was caused by Norovirus and should be controlled by thorough disinfection and excluding asymptomatic food handlers from food preparation. Early identification of the predominant mode of transmission in this outbreak was necessary to prevent new cases. Furthermore, good hygiene practices such as regular hand washing and efficient daily disinfection should be promoted to prevent such infection and outbreaks. Source

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