Research and Training Center on Rural Waste Management

Shanghai, China

Research and Training Center on Rural Waste Management

Shanghai, China
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He P.J.,Tongji University | Mao B.,Tongji University | L- F.,Tongji University | Shao L.M.,Research and Training Center on Rural Waste Management | And 3 more authors.
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2013

Impacts of Chlorella vulgaris with or without co-existing bacteria on the removal of nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter from wastewaters were studied by comparing the wastewater treatment effects between an algae-bacteria consortium and a stand-alone algae system. In the algae-bacteria system, C.vulgaris played a dominant role in the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus, while bacteria removed most of the organic matter from the wastewater. When treating unsterilized wastewater, bacteria were found to inhibit the growth of algae at >231. mg/L dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Using the algae-bacteria consortium resulted in the removal of 97% NH4+, 98% phosphorus and 26% DOC at a total nitrogen (TN) level of 29-174. mg/L. The reaction rate constant (k) values in sterilized and unsterilized wastewaters were 2.17 and 1.92. mg NH4+-N/(mg algal cell -d), respectively. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Zhu Y.,Tongji University | Zhang H.,Tongji University | Shao L.,Tongji University | Shao L.,Research and Training Center on Rural Waste Management | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Sciences (China) | Year: 2015

Excessive inter-contamination with heavy metals hampers the application of biological treatment products derived from mixed or mechanically-sorted municipal solid waste (MSW). In this study, we investigated fine particles of < 2. mm, which are small fractions in MSW but constitute a significant component of the total heavy metal content, using bulk detection techniques. A total of 17 individual fine particles were evaluated using synchrotron radiation-based micro-X-ray fluorescence and micro-X-ray diffraction. We also discussed the association, speciation and source apportionment of heavy metals. Metals were found to exist in a diffuse distribution with heterogeneous intensities and intense hot-spots of < 10 μm within the fine particles. Zn-Cu, Pb-Fe and Fe-Mn-Cr had significant correlations in terms of spatial distribution. The overlapped enrichment, spatial association, and the mineral phases of metals revealed the potential sources of fine particles from size-reduced waste fractions (such as scraps of organic wastes or ceramics) or from the importation of other particles. The diverse sources of heavy metal pollutants within the fine particles suggested that separate collection and treatment of the biodegradable waste fraction (such as food waste) is a preferable means of facilitating the beneficial utilization of the stabilized products. © 2014 The Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences.


Li Y.,Tongji University | Zhang H.,Tongji University | Shao L.-M.,Tongji University | Shao L.-M.,Research and Training Center on Rural Waste Management | And 2 more authors.
Process Safety and Environmental Protection | Year: 2015

A nanocomposite composed of metal-phosphates and chromium oxide was prepared from a Cr(III)-containing electroplating sludge (CES) by a facile three-step (extraction-precipitation-calcination) process. Optimal process parameters were determined, and the structure of the metal-phosphate/chromium oxide nanocomposite (MPCON) was investigated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results show that the optimal extraction pH is 2.0. The MPCON presents a polyhedral morphology with average particle size of around 100 nm. The components of MPCON vary from AlPO4/Cr2O3 to Mg3(PO4)2/AlPO4/Cr2O3 at different solution pH during precipitation. Meanwhile, the optical performance of the nanocomposite as a pigment is discussed. The reflectance of MPCON-6.5 in the near-infrared range is around 56%, making it a strong prospect to be used as a functional pigment in energy-efficient buildings. This study proposes a novel recycling process for the conversion of CES into high-value products, which is beneficial for the treatment of waste. © 2015 The Institution of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Fang J.,Tongji University | Zhang H.,Tongji University | Yang N.,Tongji University | Shao L.,Tongji University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association | Year: 2013

The concentrations and chromatographic profiles of gaseous pollutants emitted from a municipal solid waste (MSW) biological treatment plant were investigated to identify the major odor substances and atmospheric photochemical reactive species (PRS). Four methods were used to measure different gaseous pollutants in this study, including colorimetric tubes, gas chromatography with mass spectrometry/flame ionization detection/pulsed flame photometric detection (GC-MS/FID/PFPD) preceded by cold trap concentration, GC-FID preceded by solid-phase microextraction (SPME), and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) after derivation by 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH). Seventy-five gaseous compounds belonging to nine groups (nitrogen compounds, sulfur compounds, alkanes, alkenes, aromatics, terpenes, alcohols, carbonyls, and volatile fatty acids [VFAs]) were identified. In the pre-biotreatment facility, the total concentration of the gaseous pollutants reached the maximum value on day 7 (317 ppm). During the post-biotreatment process, the total concentration of gaseous pollutants decreased from 331 ppm at the beginning to 162 ppm in the end. The group with the greatest decrease was carbonyls, from 64 to 7.4 ppm, followed by alcohols, from 40 to 4.5 ppm, which were both oxygenated compounds. The proportion of aromatics was notably high in the pre-mechanical treatment facility, accounting for 50.6% of the total, revealing the xenobiotic compounds disseminated by stirring and agitating the waste in the initial stage. The proportions of nitrogen compounds were lower in the pre- and post-mechanical treatment facilities (1.5% and 6.9%) than in the pre- and post-biotreatment facilities (11.9% and 13.8%), suggesting that their generation was closely associated with waste degradation. The major odor compounds in the facilities were acetic acid, butyric acid, valeric acid, isovaleric acid, and dimethyl sulfide. The major PRS in the facilities were aromatics, acetaldehyde, butyraldehyde, hexanal, isopentyl aldehyde, alcohol, α-pinene, limonene, and terpinene. Outside the facilities, VFAs and aromatics were the most important compounds causing an environmental impact. The aim of this work is to assess the gaseous environmental impacts of mechanical biological treatment technology. The emission of gaseous pollutants greatly affects the living quality of nearby residents and odor complaints are becoming a major problem now. In this study, the authors utilized various pretreatment and analytical methods to obtain integrated emission information of gaseous pollutants. The results showed the transformation and fate of the gas pollutants during the treatment processes, which would help to improve the processes and to mitigate gaseous pollution. Supplemental Materials: Supplemental materials are available for this paper. Go to the publisher's online edition of the Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association for information on the concentrations of the nine compound families at different sampling locations in the plant. © 2013 Copyright 2013 A&WMA.


Fang J.,Tongji University | Lu F.,Tongji University | Zhang H.,Tongji University | Shao L.,Tongji University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association | Year: 2015

An integrated approach was applied to identify the key odorants comprising emissions from different zones in two adjacent waste treatment facilities (an aerobic biological treatment plant and an anaerobic landfill site), identify their precise sources, and distinguish the interactive influences between them. Seven odor families were investigated, including alcohols, terpenes, carbonyls, aromatics, volatile fatty acids (VFAs), sulfur compounds, and ammonia. Principal components analysis, characteristic molecular ratios, and ternary diagrams were used to differentiate the interactive influence of the odor sources. Among typical biotic compounds, terpenes were found to be more suitable as odor markers for their better fingerprinting character than sulfur compounds and VFAs. Ratios of p-cymene at sampling locations related to the biological treatment plant (aerobic status) were between 0.00 and 0.25, whereas those at landfill-related sampling points (anaerobic status) were between 0.25 and 1.0. The molecular ratio of terpenes was also found to be an appropriate means to differentiate between homologous and similar odor sources such as an aerobic biological treatment plant and anaerobic landfill. Implications: The aim of this work is to identify the key odorants comprising emissions from different zones in two adjacent waste treatment facilities, identify their precise sources, and distinguish the interactive influences between them. The emission of gaseous pollutants greatly affects the living quality of nearby residents, and odor complaints are becoming a major problem. In this study we utilized various pretreatment and analytical methods to obtain integrated emission information of gaseous pollutants. The results showed terpenes were found to be more suitable as odor markers for their better fingerprinting character than sulfur compounds and VFAs. Copyright © 2015 A&WMA.


Yang N.,Tongji University | Zhang H.,Tongji University | Shao L.-M.,Research and Training Center on Rural Waste Management | Lu F.,Tongji University | He P.-J.,Tongji University
Journal of Environmental Management | Year: 2013

Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment can be highly cost-effective in terms of GHG mitigation. This study investigated GHG emissions during MSW landfilling in China under four existing scenarios and in terms of seven different categories: waste collection and transportation, landfill management, leachate treatment, fugitive CH4 (FM) emissions, substitution of electricity production, carbon sequestration and N2O and CO emissions. GHG emissions from simple sanitary landfilling technology where no landfill gas (LFG) extraction took place (Scenario 1) were higher (641-998kg CO2-eq·t-1ww) than those from open dump (Scenario 0, 480-734kg CO2-eq·t-1ww). This was due to the strictly anaerobic conditions in Scenario 1. LFG collection and treatment reduced GHG emissions to 448-684kg CO2-eq·t-1ww in Scenario 2 (with LFG flare) and 214-277kg CO2-eq·t-1ww in Scenario 3 (using LFG for electricity production). Amongst the seven categories, FM was the predominant contributor to GHG emissions. Global sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the parameters associated with waste characteristics (i.e. CH4 potential and carbon sequestered faction) and LFG management (i.e.LFG collection efficiency and CH4 oxidation efficiency) were of great importance. A further learning on the MSW in China indicated that water content and dry matter content of food waste were the basic factors affecting GHG emissions. Source separation of food waste, as well as increasing the incineration ratio of mixed collected MSW, could effectively mitigate the overall GHG emissions from landfilling in a specific city. To increase the LFG collection and CH4 oxidation efficiencies could considerably reduce GHG emissions on the landfill site level. While, the improvement in the LFG utilization measures had an insignificant impact as long as the LFG is recovered for energy generation. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Li Y.,Tongji University | Zhang H.,Tongji University | Zhang Z.,Tongji University | Shao L.,Tongji University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Sciences (China) | Year: 2015

The rapid development of the fluorinated pesticide industry has produced a large amount of fluorine-containing hazardous waste, especially inorganic fluoride-containing waste (IFCW). A two-step process, including extraction and recovery, was developed to recover fluorine as synthetic cryolite from IFCW produced by the pesticide industry. The optimum conditions for extraction were found to be a temperature of 75°C, an initial pH (pHi) of 12, a 4-hr incubation time and a liquid-to-solid ratio of 40mL/g; these conditions resulted in a fluorine extraction ratio of 99.0%. The effects of pH and the F/Al molar ratio on fluorine recovery and the compositional, mineralogical and morphological characteristics of the cryolite products were investigated. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy of recovered precipitates showed changes in morphology with the F/Al molar ratio. Coupling Fourier transform and infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction indicated that the formation of AlF63- was restricted as increasing pH. Both the amount of fluorine recovered and the quality of the cryolite were optimized at initial pH=3 and a F/Al molar ratio 5.75. This study proposed a reliable and environmentally friendly method for the treatment of fluoride-containing wastes, which could be suitable for industrial applications. © 2015.


Zhu Y.-M.,Tongji University | Zhang H.,Tongji University | Fan S.-S.,Tongji University | Wang S.-J.,Tongji University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2014

Due to the heterogeneity of metal distribution, it is challenging to identify the speciation, source and fate of metals in solid samples at micro scales. To overcome these challenges single particles of air pollution control residues were detected in situ by synchrotron microprobe after each step of chemical extraction and analyzed by multivariate statistical analysis. Results showed that Pb, Cu and Zn co-existed as acid soluble fractions during chemical extraction, regardless of their individual distribution as chlorides or oxides in the raw particles. Besides the forms of Fe2O3, MnO2 and FeCr2O4, Fe, Mn, Cr and Ni were closely associated with each other, mainly as reducible fractions. In addition, the two groups of metals had interrelations with the Si-containing insoluble matrix. The binding could not be directly detected by micro-X-ray diffraction (μ-XRD) and XRD, suggesting their partial existence as amorphous forms or in the solid solution. The combined method on single particles can effectively determine metallic multi-associations and various extraction behaviors that could not be identified by XRD, μ-XRD or X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The results are useful for further source identification and migration tracing of heavy metals. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Yang N.,Tongji University | Damgaard A.,Technical University of Denmark | Lu F.,Tongji University | Shao L.-M.,Tongji University | And 4 more authors.
Waste Management | Year: 2014

An inventory of material and energy consumption during the construction and operation (C&O) of a typical sanitary landfill site in China was calculated based on Chinese industrial standards for landfill management and design reports. The environmental impacts of landfill C&O were evaluated through life cycle assessment (LCA). The amounts of materials and energy used during this type of undertaking in China are comparable to those in developed countries, except that the consumption of concrete and asphalt is significantly higher in China. A comparison of the normalized impact potential between landfill C&O and the total landfilling technology implies that the contribution of C&O to overall landfill emissions is not negligible. The non-toxic impacts induced by C&O can be attributed mainly to the consumption of diesel used for daily operation, while the toxic impacts are primarily due to the use of mineral materials. To test the influences of different landfill C&O approaches on environmental impacts, six baseline alternatives were assessed through sensitivity analysis. If geomembranes and geonets were utilized to replace daily and intermediate soil covers and gravel drainage systems, respectively, the environmental burdens of C&O could be mitigated by between 2% and 27%. During the LCA of landfill C&O, the research scope or system boundary has to be declared when referring to material consumption values taken from the literature; for example, the misapplication of data could lead to an underestimation of diesel consumption by 60-80%. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

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