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Doescher C.,Technology and Research Center | Beuker T.,Technology and Research Center | Brown B.,ROSEN
Oil and Gas Journal | Year: 2010

Electromagnetic transducer technology (EMAT) in-line inspections are sufficiently sensitive to detect crack-like features as part of pipeline integrity management. The sensitivity threshold for individual cracks accepted throughout the pipeline industry equals 30 mm length and 1 mm depth. ROSEN USA studied a combination of artificial and natural crack-like indications after introducing the EMAT tools to service, finding flaws 20 mm long and 0.65 mm deep with a probability-of-detection of 92%. EMAT detected crack-like anomalies 20 mm long and 0.42 mm deep with a POD of 44%. The depth value given for a cluster is typically the deepest value found within the cluster. The crack depth reported as a part of an EMAT inspection follows the API categorization scheme. The condition of the external pipeline coating is valuable information in the integrity assessment process. The EMAT inspection system provides characteristics of both the coating type and the disbonded coating.

Fore T.,Kinder Morgan | Klein S.,Technology and Research Center | Yoxall C.,ROSEN United States | Cone S.,ROSEN United States
Proceedings of the Biennial International Pipeline Conference, IPC | Year: 2014

Managing the threat of Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) in natural gas pipelines continues to be an area of focus for many operating companies with potentially susceptible pipelines. This paper describes the validation process of the highresolution Electro-Magnetic Acoustical Transducer (EMAT) In- Line Inspection (ILI) technology for detection of SCC prior to scheduled pressure tests of inspected line pipe valve sections. The validation of the EMAT technology covered the application of high-resolution EMAT ILI and determining the Probability Of Detection (POD) and Identification (POI). The ILI verification process is in accordance to a API 1163 Level 3 validation. It is described in detail for 30" and 36" pipeline segments. Both segments are known to have an SCC history. Correlation of EMAT ILI calls to manual non-destructive measurements and destructively tested SCC samples lead to a comprehensive understanding of the capabilities of the EMAT technology and the associated process for managing the SCC threat. Based on the data gathered, the dimensional tool tolerances in terms of length and depth are derived. Copyright © 2014 by ASME.

Molenda D.,Technology and Research Center | Thale W.,Technology and Research Center
Proceedings of the Biennial International Pipeline Conference, IPC | Year: 2014

When establishing a pipelines' maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP), many pipeline operators face uncertainties regarding the yield strength of the respective pipeline material. This specifically concerns "pre-regulatory" pipelines which, for example, constitute approximately 66% of all gas transmission pipelines in the U.S. as well as new pipelines to ensure laid steel pipes meet the contracted steel grade. Conventional ILI technologies are capable of delivering relevant information for MAOP calculation, such as wall thickness and diameter. However, as missing element, in the past there have been no economic means for accurately measuring yield strength. Therefore ROSEN has developed and tested a novel ILI system for measuring yield strength of pipeline steel. This paper introduces the fundamental principles of this new system and outlines first results. Laboratory test results are obtained from samples covering the typical range of pipeline steels. The sensor readings are correlated with reference yield strengths of certified steels where the yield strength was determined by destructive tensile tests. Initial pull tests with an ILI tool measurement are compared with the available yield strengths and tensile strengths according to the inspection certificates of the pull test pipes. Copyright © 2014 by ASME.

Ponce C.E.S.,Technology and Research Center | Harris J.,Technology and Research Center | Beal T.S.,Technology and Research Center
Institute Rio Pipeline Conference [IBP] (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 9/20-22/2011) Technical Papers | Year: 2011

As natural gas pipeline operators work towards completing their baseline integrity assessments, as mandated by U.S. regulations, they are being confronted with challenging pipeline segments that are difficult to inspect with existing technology. Engineering and implementing the modifications necessary to make a pipeline system piggable are often cost-prohibitive and time-consuming; therefore, the need to develop new and advanced inspection technologies for unpiggable lines is imperative. Rosen USA, together with the El Paso Pipeline Group joined together to address this need within the market place. El Paso has a 30/36 in. multi-diameter pipeline that was due to be inspected prior to the PHMSA December 2012 deadline, and needed a cost effective solution. Development of the ILI tool began in August 2009 by identifying all R&D challenges to overcome, such as magnet sensor segment capable of collapsing and expanding to adjust to all the pipeline conditions and diameters, limited tool length to ensuring passage through 1.5 D bends, maintaining enough sealing effect so the pull unit would be capable to pass through all bends.

Ginten M.,Technology and Research Center | Brockhaus S.,Technology and Research Center | Baumeister M.,Technology and Research Center
Brazilian Petroleum, Gas and Biofuels Institute Rio Pipeline Conference [IBP] (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 9/20-22/2011) Technica | Year: 2011

About three million kilometers of high pressure pipelines transporting gaseous and liquid products are installed all over the world. While in general steel pipelines are considered a safe method to transport large quantities of oil, gas and other products, they are also prone to deterioration. This process may result in volumetric defects, namely corrosion. Today, linear defects, like stress corrosion cracking (SCC) or fatigue cracks, are of increasing concern. Typically, these kinds of crack-like flaws are oriented in axial direction. However, soil movement or other mechanical impacts causing bending or dent strain may result in crack-like defects oriented in circumferential direction. In addition, poor craftsmanship during pipeline assembly can be reason for circumferential girth weld cracking. For a while now, ultrasonic wall thickness measurement technology is applied in high pressure pipelines as a versatile and accurate solution for addressing corrosion and other volumetric flaws in liquid pipelines. The technology is utilized to inspect in challenging environments, such as high pressure, small diameter or multi-diameter pipelines.

Bauer S.,Technology and Research Center | Brueske H.,Technology and Research Center
Proceedings of the Biennial International Pipeline Conference, IPC | Year: 2014

The high pressure liquid and gas pipeline network is aging in all regions around the globe and becomes more and more vulnerable to integrity threats. Besides general corrosion, stress corrosion cracking becomes an increasingly important topic. Pipeline operators are facing the challenge to address these threats. Most (31%) of the pipelines worldwide are pipelines with diameters ≤10" [1]. Providing a better inline inspection service starting with small diameter pipelines will therefore address the threats arising from stress corrosion cracking most effectively. This way the typical diameters of pipelines posing risks served first. Ultrasound inline inspection for pipelines is known for years and provide several advantages over hydrostatic tests. Its most important advantage for pipeline operators is that sub-critical flaws can be detected, which results in a comprehensive picture of the integrity status of the pipeline. Despite the advantages and the experience with ultrasound inline inspection, the sizing precision and the sizing confidence are two factors limiting the success of the ultrasound inline inspection technology. This paper presents several measures to address these two issues and thus to provide a more valuable service for pipeline operators. There are two ways to increase the sizing precision and the sizing confidence: either to develop new procedures to evaluate existing data or to gather more or better data during inline inspection. The focus in this paper will be on the second option. Three measures are described in this paper: first, using a new design to improve the guidance of the sensor carrier leading to better data quality, especially at welds. Second, using more sensors for the inline inspection tools. This will not only provide a more precise circumferential position of the flaws but also more data for every flaw. Finally, recording more echoes at each point of the pipeline which is the basis to extract more information from every measurement. Copyright © 2014 by ASME.

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