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Turner D.A.,Duke University | Adamson D.C.,Research and Surgery Services
Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology | Year: 2011

Brain function depends on complex metabolic interactions among only a few different cell types, with astrocytes providing critical support for neurons. Astrocyte functions include buffering the extracellular space, providing substrates to neurons, interchanging glutamate and glutamine for synaptic transmission with neurons, and facilitating access to blood vessels. Whereas neurons possess highly oxidative metabolism and easily succumb to ischemia, astrocytes rely more on glycolytic metabolism and hence are less susceptible tolack of oxygen. Astrocytoma cells seem to retain basic metabolic mechanisms of astrocytes; for example, they show a high glycolytic rate, lactate extrusion, ability to flourish under hypoxia, and opportunistic use of mechanisms to enhance cell division and maintain growth. Differences in metabolism between neurons and astrocytes may also extend to astrocytoma cells, providing therapeutic opportunities against astrocytomas, including sensitivity to acetate, a high rate of glycolysis and lactate extrusion, glutamate uptake transporters, differential sensitivities of monocarboxylate transporters, presence of glycogen, high interlinking with gap junctions, use of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate for lipid synthesis, using different isoforms of synthetic enzymes (e.g. isocitrate dehydrogenase, pyruvate carboxylase, pyruvate kinase, lactate dehydrogenase), and different glucose uptake mechanisms. These unique metabolic susceptibilities may augment conventional therapeutic attacks based on cell division differences and surface receptors alone. © 2011 American Association of Neuropathologists, Inc. Source

Shetty A.K.,Texas A&M University | Shetty A.K.,Research Service | Shetty A.K.,Duke University | Shetty A.K.,Research and Surgery Services | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience | Year: 2013

While neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs) in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus have been extensively characterized, the behavior of NSCs in the CA1 and CA3 subfields of the hippocampus is mostly unclear. Therefore, we compared the in vitro behavior of NSCs expanded from the micro-dissected CA1 and CA3 subfields of postnatal day (PND) 4 and 12 Fischer 344 rats. A small fraction (~1%) of dissociated cells from CA1 and CA3 subfields of both PND 4 and 12 hippocampi formed neurospheres in the presence of EGF and FGF-2. A vast majority of neurosphere cells expressed NSC markers such as nestin, Sox-2 and Musashi-1. Differentiation assays revealed the ability of these NSCs to give rise to neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. Interestingly, the overall neuronal differentiation of NSCs from both subfields decreased with age (23-28% at PND4 to 5-10% at PND12) but the extent of oligodendrocyte differentiation from NSCs increased with age (24-32% at PND 4 to 45-55% at PND 12). Differentiation of NSCs into astrocytes was however unchanged (40-48%). Furthermore, NSCs from both subfields gave rise to GABA-ergic neurons including subclasses expressing markers such as calbindin, calretinin, neuropeptide Y and parvalbumin. However, the fraction of neurons that expressed GABA decreased between PND4 (59-67%) and PND 12 (25-38%). Additional analyses revealed the presence of proliferating NSC-like cells (i.e. cells expressing Ki-67 and Sox-2) in different strata of hippocampal CA1 and CA3 subfields of both PND4 and PND 12 animals. Thus, multipotent NSCs persist in both CA1 and CA3 subfields of the hippocampus in the postnatal period. Such NSCs also retain their ability to give rise to both GABA-ergic and non-GABA-ergic neurons. However, their overall neurogenic potential declines considerably in the early postnatal period. © 2013. Source

Hattiangady B.,Texas A&M University | Hattiangady B.,Research Service | Hattiangady B.,Duke University | Hattiangady B.,Research and Surgery Services | And 4 more authors.
Stem Cells Translational Medicine | Year: 2012

The hippocampus is vital for functions such as mood and memory. Hippocampal injury typically leads to mood and memory impairments associated with reduced and aberrant neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. We examined whether neural stem cell (NSC) grafting after hippocampal injury would counteract impairments in mood, memory, and neurogenesis. We expanded NSCs from the anterior subventricular zone (SVZ) of postnatal F344 rat pups expressing the human placental alkaline phosphatase and grafted them into the hippocampus of young adult F344 rats at 5 days after an injury inflicted through a unilateral intracerebroventricular administration of kainic acid. Analyses through forced swim, water maze, and novel object recognition tests revealed significant impairments in mood and memory function in animals that underwent injury and sham-grafting surgery. In contrast, animals that received SVZ-NSC grafts after injury exhibited mood and memory function comparable to those of naïve control animals. Graft-derived cells exhibited excellent survival and pervasive migration, and they differentiated into neurons, subtypes of inhibitory GABAergic interneurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and oligodendrocyte progenitors. Significant fractions of graft-derived cells also expressed beneficial neurotrophic factors such as the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, fibroblast growth factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor. Furthermore, SVZ-NSC grafting counteracted the injury-induced reductions and abnormalities in neurogenesis by both maintaining a normal level of NSC activity in the subgranular zone and providing protection to reelin+ interneurons in the dentate gyrus. These results underscore that early SVZ-NSC grafting intervention after hippocampal injury is efficacious for thwarting mood and memory dysfunction and abnormal neurogenesis. © AlphaMed Press. Source

Galeffi F.,Duke University | Galeffi F.,Research and Surgery Services | Degan S.,Duke University | Britz G.,Duke University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism | Year: 2015

We investigated microvascular reactivity to synaptic train stimulation after induction of subarachnoid hemorrhage in adult rats, analyzing tissue oxygen levels [pO2 ] in intact hippocampus. In control rats, hippocampal pO2 averaged 11.4 mm Hg whereas hemodynamic responses averaged 13.1 mm Hg (to a 25 s train). After subarachnoid hemorrhage (at 2 days), we recorded a dramatic elevation in baseline pO2 in the hippocampus (to 68.4 mm Hg) accompanied by inverted pO2 responses to synaptic train stimulation (-9.46 mm Hg). These significant changes in baseline hippocampal pO2 and inverted pO2 responses after subarachnoid hemorrhage indicate severe alterations of neurovascular coupling and neuronal viability. © 2015 The Author(s). Source

Shetty G.A.,Texas A&M University | Shetty G.A.,Research Service | Hattiangady B.,Texas A&M University | Hattiangady B.,Research Service | And 6 more authors.
Age | Year: 2013

Hippocampal neurogenesis, important for memory and mood function, wanes greatly in old age. Studies in rat models have implied that this decrease is not due to loss of neural stem cells (NSCs) in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus (DG) but rather due to an increased quiescence of NSCs. Additional studies have suggested that changes in the microenvironment, particularly declines in the concentrations of neurotrophic factors, underlie this change. In this study, we compared the expression of 84 genes that are important for NSC proliferation and neurogenesis between the DG of young (4 months old) and aged (24 months old) Fischer 344 rats, using a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction array. Interestingly, the expression of a vast majority of genes that have been reported previously to positively or negatively regulate NSC proliferation was unaltered with aging. Furthermore, most genes important for cell cycle arrest, regulation of cell differentiation, growth factors and cytokine levels, synaptic functions, apoptosis, cell adhesion and cell signaling, and regulation of transcription displayed stable expression in the DG with aging. The exceptions included increased expression of genes important for NSC proliferation and neurogenesis (Stat3 and Shh), DNA damage response and NFkappaB signaling (Cdk5rap3), neuromodulation (Adora1), and decreased expression of a gene important for neuronal differentiation (HeyL). Thus, age-related decrease in hippocampal neurogenesis is not associated with a decline in the expression of selected genes important for NSC proliferation and neurogenesis in the DG. © American Aging Association (outside the USA) 2013. Source

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