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Cox G.,Research and Strategy
Asia Pacific Journal of Environmental Law | Year: 2013

REDD+ is evolving into a keystone of the international climate change regime. Voluntary carbon markets using forest carbon credits have existed for some time. Together, these present challenges for our understanding of property rights in forests and particularly the concept of a 'new property right' in forest carbon. This article explores concepts of property rights as they have evolved in the common law tradition. For forest carbon, a more meaningful metaphor for property rights is a 'web of interests' rather than a 'bundle of rights'. This enables 'views of the forest' that are more pluralistic, and which recognise the importance of human rights approaches, governance, and land tenure. Systems for defining forest carbon rights are being developed in many jurisdictions, whether to facilitate REDD+ implementation or to develop emissions trading schemes. All confront difficult issues relating to national circumstances, legal traditions and the ultimate objectives of defining carbon rights. Rights to sequestered carbon are but one view of the forest. For forest carbon not to become another resource curse, these multifarious and conflicting perspectives will need to be understood and ultimately reconciled. © Australian Centre for Climate and Environmental Law 2013. Source


Tuckerman P.,Jobsupport | Cain P.,Research and Strategy | Long B.,Employment and Economic Policy | Klarkowski J.,Jobsupport
Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation | Year: 2012

The Disability Services Act of 1986 brought about major changes in the way disability services were provided in Australia. The introduction of open employment services for people with high support needs has been lifechanging for many people with disabilities. People with significant disabilities are now in open employment in far larger numbers and there have been consistent efforts by government to develop the policy framework to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the program. The number of people with disability accessing open employment services has experienced significant growth over time-an overall growth of 186% from 1998-99 to 2009-2010. However it is now clear that these reforms have had differential effects for different groups of people with disabilities. The initial growth in the number of people with intellectual disability participating in the open employment program has stalled. There is a need to examine what can be done to improve open employment participation for people with intellectual disabilities in Australia. © 2012 IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved. Source


Bhatta G.D.,CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change | Bhatta G.D.,Research and Strategy | Aggarwal P.K.,CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change
Climate and Development | Year: 2016

Concerns over climate change and climatic variability are growing in South Asia because of the potential detrimental impacts of these phenomena on livelihoods. Such growing concerns demonstrate a need to assess how farmers simultaneously cope with extreme events and adapt to climatic variability. Based on household surveys of 2660 farm families conducted in Nepal's Terai, coastal Bangladesh, and the Indian state of Bihar, this paper seeks to (1) explore farmers’ coping strategies under adverse weather events; (2) identify key adaptation measures used by farmers; and (3) explore the policy interventions required to adjust agriculture to climatic variability. The study reveals that migration is the most important coping strategy of the households in Bihar and coastal Bangladesh, while reliance on credit markets is the most important in Terai. Farmers in the areas with higher rainfall variability pursue a higher number of coping strategies compared to farmers in areas with lower rainfall variability. Food available months are also higher in areas with higher rainfall variability. Across all sites, the most frequently mentioned adaptive practices are changing cropping patterns and adoption of resilient crop varieties. A large number of farmers place emphasis on breeding crop varieties that tolerate adverse weather. Governments should implement a number of planned activities to cope with adverse events, with the aim that these activities would be synergistic with adaptation to climate change. © 2015 Taylor & Francis. Source


Bhatta G.D.,International Water Management Institute IWMI | Bhatta G.D.,Research and Strategy | Ojha H.R.,University of New South Wales | Aggarwal P.K.,International Water Management Institute IWMI | And 7 more authors.
Environment, Development and Sustainability | Year: 2015

While impacts of climate change on agricultural systems have been widely researched, there is still limited understanding of what agricultural innovations have evolved over time in response to both climatic and non-climatic drivers. Although there has been some progress in formulating national adaptation policies and strategic planning in different countries of South Asia, research to identify local-level adaptive strategies and practices is still limited. Through eight case studies and a survey of 300 households in 15 locations in India, Nepal and Bangladesh, this paper generates empirical evidence on emerging agricultural innovations in contrasting socio-economic, geographical and agro-ecological contexts. The study demonstrates that several farm practices (innovations) have emerged in response to multiple drivers over time, with various forms of institutional and policy support, including incentives to reduce risks in the adoption of innovative practice. It further shows that there is still limited attempt to systematically mainstream adaptation innovations into local, regional and national government structures, policies and planning processes. The paper shows that the process of farm-level adaptation through innovation adoption forms an important avenue for agricultural adaptation in South Asia. A key implication of this finding is that there is a need for stronger collaborations between research institutions, extension systems, civil society and the private sector actors to enhance emerging adaptive innovations at the farm level. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht Source


Bhatta G.D.,CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change | Aggarwal P.K.,Research and Strategy
Climate and Development | Year: 2015

Concerns over climate change and climatic variability are growing in South Asia because of the potential detrimental impacts of these phenomena on livelihoods. Such growing concerns demonstrate a need to assess how farmers simultaneously cope with extreme events and adapt to climatic variability. Based on household surveys of 2660 farm families conducted in Nepal's Terai, coastal Bangladesh, and the Indian state of Bihar, this paper seeks to (1) explore farmers’ coping strategies under adverse weather events; (2) identify key adaptation measures used by farmers; and (3) explore the policy interventions required to adjust agriculture to climatic variability. The study reveals that migration is the most important coping strategy of the households in Bihar and coastal Bangladesh, while reliance on credit markets is the most important in Terai. Farmers in the areas with higher rainfall variability pursue a higher number of coping strategies compared to farmers in areas with lower rainfall variability. Food available months are also higher in areas with higher rainfall variability. Across all sites, the most frequently mentioned adaptive practices are changing cropping patterns and adoption of resilient crop varieties. A large number of farmers place emphasis on breeding crop varieties that tolerate adverse weather. Governments should implement a number of planned activities to cope with adverse events, with the aim that these activities would be synergistic with adaptation to climate change. © 2015 Taylor & Francis Source

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