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Rochester Hills, MI, United States

An G.B.,POSCO | Ryu K.M.,POSCO | Park J.S.,POSCO | Shin Y.T.,Samsung | And 6 more authors.
Proceedings of the International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference | Year: 2011

Recently, there have been the increase of ship size and the development of oil and gas in arctic region. These trends have led to the requirements such as high strength, good toughness at low temperature and good weldability. On the other hand, there has been the key issue of crack arrestability in large size container ship. Steel plates with 80mm thickness were used and two welding processes, which are flux cored arc welding (FCAW) process only and combined welding process (EGW+FCAW), were used to produce full thickness weld joints. The effect of joint design on crack arrestability was investigated to prevent a catastrophic failure along the block joint of hatch side coaming. A brittle crack arrest technique was developed without block joint shift, using an arrest weld in the end of hatch side coaming weld line. Copyright © 2011 by the International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers (ISOPE).

Dempsey A.R.,Medical University of South Carolina | Johnson S.S.,Research and Product Development | Westhoff C.L.,Columbia University
Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health | Year: 2011

CONTEXT: Improved continuation of oral contraceptive use may decrease the incidence of unintended pregnancy. Therefore, identifying predictors of continuation is important to informing targeted interventions. METHODS: A survey conducted in 2003-2005 collected data from young women who sought oral contraceptives at three family planning clinics in New York, Dallas and Atlanta. Cluster analysis of data from 1,245 women was used to identify three distinct groups on the basis of baseline responses to items measuring constructs from the transtheoretical model of health behavior change: perceived advantages of pill use, perceived disadvantages and self-confidence in ability to sustain use. Logistic regression was used to assess the likelihood of continuation among the clusters. RESULTS: Participants who were confident in their ability to use the pill and who considered both its advantages and its disadvantages important were more likely to continue use for six months than were those who gave low scores to the method's advantages and their ability to use it (odds ratio, 1.4). The same appeared to be true for those who gave high scores to the pill's advantages and their ability to use it, but a low score to the method's disadvantages (1.3); however, this finding was only marginally significant. Demographic variables were not significant after adjustment for cluster membership. CONCLUSIONS: Cluster membership based on transtheoretical model constructs helps predict oral contraceptive continuation. Women who undervalue the advantages of pill use and have low confidence in their ability to use the method represent a target for interventions and future research. © 2010 by the Guttmacher Institute.

Kimmerle M.,University of Windsor | Ferre C.L.,Columbia University | Kotwica K.A.,Research and Product Development | Michel G.F.,University of North Carolina at Greensboro
Developmental Psychobiology | Year: 2010

Role-differentiated bimanual manipulation (RDBM) is a complementary movement of both hands that requires differentiation between actions of the hands. Previous research showed that RDBM can be observed in infants as early as 7 months. However, RDBM could be considered a skill only when its frequency, duration, and use is appropriate for the type of manual task, and there is some evidence of intentionality in use. Twenty-four normally developing infants were studied longitudinally at 7, 9, 11, and 13 months to assess the frequency and duration of five clearly different types of RDBM with three "single- part" and three "two-part" toys as they emerge during development. Also, the sequences of actions that lead to RDBM were examined for evidence of "intentionality." The results show that although the each type of RDBM appears early in infancy, RDBM only begins to exhibit the characters of a skill by 13 months. Moreover, the type of toy influences not only the likelihood of eliciting role differentiation, but also the type of RDBM behavior and the organization of the sequence of actions that lead to RDBM. Some useful criteria for defining an infant sensorimotor skill are provided in discussion. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

An G.B.,POSCO | Ryu K.M.,POSCO | Park J.S.,POSCO | Park T.D.,Industrial Research Institute | And 7 more authors.
Proceedings of the International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference | Year: 2010

The evaluation of the brittle crack arrest toughness value (Kca) and the development of the brittle crack arrest method for the welded joint of shipbuilding steel plate were experimentally conducted. Steel plates with 80mm thickness were used and two welding processes, which are flux cored arc welding (FCAW) process only and combined welding process (EGW+FCAW), were used to produce full thickness weld joints. Temperature gradient ESSO test was performed to measure Kca of the welded joints. To develop the brittle crack arrest method, actual structural specimens were utilized to conduct ESSO test at -10° uniform temperature. According to the experimental results of crack arrestability investigation of thick shipbuilding steel plates, the arrester hole design for the welded joint is very effective to arrest the brittle crack without shifting the block. © 2010 by The International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers (ISOPE).

Brown A.E.,Research and Product Development | Brown A.E.,University of Vermont | Okayasu H.,Research and Product Development | Nzioki M.M.,WHO Country Office | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2014

Monitoring the quality of supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) is a key tool for polio eradication. Regular monitoring data, however, are often unreliable, showing high coverage levels in virtually all areas, including those with ongoing virus circulation. To address this challenge, lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) was introduced in 2009 as an additional tool to monitor SIA quality. Now used in 8 countries, LQAS provides a number of programmatic benefits: identifying areas of weak coverage quality with statistical reliability, differentiating areas of varying coverage with greater precision, and allowing for trend analysis of campaign quality. LQAS also accommodates changes to survey format, interpretation thresholds, evaluations of sample size, and data collection through mobile phones to improve timeliness of reporting and allow for visualization of campaign quality. LQAS becomes increasingly important to address remaining gaps in SIA quality and help focus resources on high-risk areas to prevent the continued transmission of wild poliovirus. © Crown copyright 2014.

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