Research and Practical Institute for Horticulture and Food Technologies

Chişinău, Moldova

Research and Practical Institute for Horticulture and Food Technologies

Chişinău, Moldova
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Maul E.,Julius Kuhn Institute | Topfer R.,Julius Kuhn Institute | Carka F.,Agricultural University of Tirana | Cornea V.,Research and Practical Institute for Horticulture and Food Technologies | And 32 more authors.
Vitis - Journal of Grapevine Research | Year: 2015

The Near East and the Caucasus regions are considered as gene and domestication centre for grapevine. In an earlier project "Conservation and Sustainable Use of Grapevine Genetic Resources in the Caucasus and Northern Black Sea Region" (2003-2007) it turned out that 2,654 accessions from autochthonous cultivars maintained by Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Moldova, Russian Federation and Ukraine in ten grapevine collections may belong to 1,283 cultivars. But trueness to type assessment by morphology and genetic fingerprinting still needed to be done. In COST Action FA1003 a first step in that direction was initiated. The following countries participated: Albania, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Croatia, Georgia, Hungary, Latvia, Moldova, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia and Ukraine. Mainly Vitis vinifera accessions (1098 samples) and 76 Vitis sylvestris individuals were analyzed by nine SSR-markers (VVS2, VVMD5, VVMD7, VVMD25, VVMD27, VVMD28, VVMD32, VrZag62, VrZag79). Cultivar identity confirmation/rejection was attempted for 306 genotypes/cultivars by comparison of the generated genetic profiles with international SSR-marker databases and ampelographic studies. The outcome proved unambiguously the necessity of morphologic description and photos (a) for comparison with bibliography, (b) for a clear and explicit definition of the cultivar and (c) the detection of sampling errors and misnomers. From the 1,098 analyzed accessions, 997 turned out to be indigenous to the participating countries. The remaining 101 accessions were Western European cultivars. The 997 fingerprints of indigenous accessions resulted in 658 unique profiles/cultivars. From these 353 (54 %) are only maintained in the countries of origin and 300 (46 %) unique genotypes exist only once in the Eastern European collections. For these 300 genotypes duplicate preservation needs to be initiated. In addition, the high ratio of non redundant genetic material of Eastern European origin suggests an immense unexplored diversity. Documentation of the entire information in the European Vitis Database will assist both germplasm maintenance and documentation of cultivar specific data.

Rustioni L.,University of Milan | Maghradze D.,The University of Georgia | Popescu C.F.,University of Bucharest | Cola G.,University of Milan | And 40 more authors.
Vitis - Journal of Grapevine Research | Year: 2014

A standard protocol for phenotyping structural and compositional aspects of the grape berry has been adopted by 18 East and West European germplasm collections during one season by testing a total of 469 accessions, including reference cultivars as well as local and minor germplasm accessions of specific interest. The protocol consists in the collection of triplicates for 26 phenotypic traits, from biological samples, each formed by 10 berries collected from 9 representative bunches from every analyzed accessions. The protocol concatenates the data from measurements and acquisitions, with the objective to generate new derived variables, which are expressed with different units (%; content per kg of grapes, per berry, per g of tissue). For each variable, the Least Significant Differences (LSD), to contrast a pair of single accession mean values, and the Confidence Intervals (CI), to estimate each single accession mean value, were computed. The application of the protocol revealed satisfactory results with high accuracy and efficiency in estimation of phenotypic traits of each accession. The whole data set will be useful for researchers, breeders and viticulturists in yield evaluation of grapevine cultivars, as well as in comparative analyses of environment-variety interaction.

Rustioni L.,University of Milan | Cola G.,University of Milan | Fiori S.,University of Milan | Failla O.,University of Milan | And 24 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

In the framework of the COST Action FA1003-'GRAPENET: East-West Collaboration for Grapevine Diversity Exploration and Mobilization of Adaptive Traits for Breeding'-common phenotyping methods have been proposed to characterize germplasm accessions. The protocols aimed at the description of traits of interest for the cultivars exploitation. In particular, phenological and enocarpological methods were selected. This paper will focus on the phenological records. The extended BBCH scale was selected and adapted to our scope.

Mihaljevic M.Z.,University of Zagreb | Simon S.,University of Zagreb | Pejic I.,University of Zagreb | Carka F.,Agricultural University of Tirana | And 15 more authors.
Vitis - Journal of Grapevine Research | Year: 2013

South East European (SEE) viticulture partially relies on native grapevine varieties, previously scarcely described. In order to characterize old local grapevine varieties and assess the level of synonymy and genetic diversity from SEE countries, we described and genotyped 122 accessions from Albania, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H), Croatia, Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Republika Srpska (Bosnia and Herzegovina) and Romania on nine most commonly used microsatellite loci. As a result of the study a total of 86 different genotypes were identified. All loci were very polymorphic and a total of 96 alleles were detected, ranging from 8 to 14 alleles per locus, with an average allele number of 10.67. Overall observed heterozygosity was 0.759 and slightly lower than expected (0.789) while gene diversity per locus varied between 0.600 (VVMD27) and 0.906 (VVMD28). Eleven cases of synonymy and three of homonymy have been recorded for samples harvested from different countries. Cultivars with identical genotypes were mostly detected between neighboring countries. No clear differentiation between countries was detected although several specific alleles were detected. The integration of the obtained genetic data with ampelographic ones is very important for accurate identification of the SEE cultivars and provides a significant tool in cultivar preservation and utilization.

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