Saint-Denis-d'Oléron, France
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Wang Y.X.J.,Interventional Imaging | Idee J.-M.,Research and Innovation Division | Corot C.,Research and Innovation Division
Nanoscale | Year: 2015

Designing of theranostics and dual or multi-modality contrast agents are currently two of the hottest topics in biotechnology and biomaterials science. However, for single entity theranostics, a right ratio of their diagnostic component and their therapeutic component may not always be realized in a composite suitable for clinical application. For dual/multiple modality molecular imaging agents, after in vivo administration, there is an optimal time window for imaging, when an agent is imaged by one modality, the pharmacokinetics of this agent may not allow imaging by another modality. Due to reticuloendothelial system clearance, efficient in vivo delivery of nanoparticles to the lesion site is sometimes difficult. The toxicity of these entities also remains poorly understood. While the medical need of theranostics is admitted, the business model remains to be established. There is an urgent need for a global and internationally harmonized re-evaluation of the approval and marketing processes of theranostics. However, a reasonable expectation exists that, in the near future, the current obstacles will be removed, thus allowing the wide use of these very promising agents. © The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Murchland S.,Research and Innovation Division | Parkyn H.,Research and Innovation Division
Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology | Year: 2010

Aim.This study explored the experience of children with physical disabilities using assistive technology for participation with schoolwork to gain a greater understanding of their perspectives and subjective experiences. Method.A qualitative study involving thematic analysis of in-depth interviews of the child with a parent or significant adult. Purposeful sampling from a larger study recruited five children aged between 10 and 14 years, with differing physical disabilities who attended mainstream schools. All children used computer-based assistive technology. Results.All of the children recognised that assistive technology enabled them to participate and reduced the impact of their physical disability, allowing independent participation, and facilitated higher learning outcomes. Issues related to ease of use, social implications and assistive technology systems are discussed. © 2010 Informa UK, Ltd.


Idee J.-M.,Research and Innovation Division | Guiu B.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research
Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology | Year: 2013

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains a major public health problem. Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is recognized as the standard of care for patients with unresectable, asymptomatic, noninvasive and multinodular HCC. This procedure is based on percutaneous administration of a cytotoxic drug emulsified with Lipiodol followed by embolization of the tumour-feeding arteries. The standard procedure involves Lipiodol, an oily contrast medium which consists of a mixture of long-chain di-iodinated ethyl esters of poppy seed fatty acids. The aim of this review is to discuss the physical properties, tumour uptake behaviour and drug delivery effects of Lipiodol, the parameters influencing tumour uptake and future prospects.Lipiodol has a unique place in TACE as it combines three specific characteristics: drug delivery, transient and plastic embolization and radiopacity properties. Substantial heterogeneity in the physicochemical characteristics of Lipiodol/cytotoxic agent emulsions might reduce the efficacy of this procedure and justifies the current interest in Lipiodol for drug delivery. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Raksanam B.,Research and Innovation Division | Songthap A.,Research and Innovation Division
2015 3rd International Conference on Digital Information, Networking, and Wireless Communications, DINWC 2015 | Year: 2015

The study objectives were: (1) to develop and design an Electronic book (E-book) for improving knowledge addressed pesticide safety behaviors among children living in rubber farming areas; and (2) to evaluate their knowledge and perceptions on pesticide use. This study was conducted in the Khogyang community, Trang province, Thailand between September 2013 and March 2014. E-book's content validity was verified by four specialists and experts on environmental health, community health, behavior and social sciences, and health education. One hundred and forty-four rubber farmer's children from the Khogyang and Namcha schools were randomly recruited. The research procedure was divided into two phases: (1) knowledge and related concern evaluation phase and; (2) E-book design and development phase. The results revealed that their knowledge on pesticide use was observed at moderate level (13.20 + 3.95, total score = 21). The level of overall perceptions regarding pesticide use was observed at moderate level (3.49+0.51, total score = 5.00). The mean scores of perceived susceptibility, seriousness, barriers, and benefits of pesticide use were 3.78 + 0.72, 3.13 + 0.66, 3.21+0.58 and 3.85+1.01, respectively. Positive statistically significant correlation between knowledge and perception score was found (r = 0.613, p-value < 0.001). The E-book contents were revised appropriately according recommendations from the experts. Electronic version had been performed by specialist and expert on IT. Features of Pesticide Safety e-book were presented: web-based, platform agnostic, group ware tool, easy drag and drop interface, pedagogically oriented E-book design. The contents in the E-book focused on basic guidelines for protecting rubber farmers and their families from pesticide risk behaviors. Simplified language styles, fonts, layouts, designs, and pictures illustrated were developed and designed to provide understandable, concise pesticide safety information for rubber farmer's children and their families. Some parts of drawing pictures in the E-book were designed using ideas from the participants. These served as a guideline for introducing the idea of community involvement in health education related to pesticide safety behaviors. The Khogyang community gained knowledge and took the necessary steps to incorporate pesticide safety recommendations for their families. © 2015 IEEE.


Oomah B.D.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Luc G.,University of Reunion Island | Leprelle C.,Quimper University | Drover J.C.G.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

Thirteen low-tannin faba bean genotypes grown at two locations in north central Alberta in 2009 were evaluated to investigate the variation in seed characteristics, phenolic and phytate contents, and phytase and antioxidant activities and to elucidate the relationship of these components as a breeding strategy. Seed characteristics including color were predominantly genotype dependent. The faba bean genotypes with total phenolic content ranging from 5.5 to 41.8 mg of catechin equiv/g of sample was linearly related to tannin content and the best predictor of antioxidant activity. Phytic acid content and phytase activity varied significantly among genotypes and between locations, ranging from 5.9 to 15.1 g/kg and from 1606 to 2154 FTU/kg sample, respectively. Multivariate data analysis performed on 19 components analyzed in this study using principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis demonstrate that differences in seed characteristics, phenolic components, phytic acid, and phytase are major factors in segregating faba bean genotypes. The relatively low phytic acid content and high phytase activity of these low-tannin faba bean genotypes are beneficial/essential traits for their use in human and animal nutrition. © Published 2011 by the American Chemical Society.


Idee J.-M.,Research and Innovation Division | Fretellier N.,Research and Innovation Division | Robic C.,Research and Innovation Division | Corot C.,Research and Innovation Division
Critical Reviews in Toxicology | Year: 2014

Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) is an iatrogenic scleroderma-like fibrosing systemic disorder occurring in patients with severe or end-stage renal disease. It was established as a new clinical entity in the year 2000. A causal role for gadolinium chelates (GC), widely used as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging, was suggested six years later. It rapidly appeared that the occurrence of NSF was associated with prior administration of GCs with lower thermodynamic stability, leading to warnings being published by health authorities and learned societies worldwide. Although a role for the chelated form of the less stable GCs has been proposed, the most commonly accepted hypothesis involves the gradual release of dissociated gadolinium in the body, leading to systemic fibrosis. However, the entire chain of events is still not fully understood in a causal way and many uncertainties remain. © 2014 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.


Alvarez-Castro J.M.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Yang R.-C.,Research and Innovation Division | Yang R.-C.,University of Alberta
Genetica | Year: 2011

Quantitative genetics stems from the theoretical models of genetic effects, which are re-parameterizations of the genotypic values into parameters of biological (genetic) relevance. Different formulations of genetic effects are adequate to address different subjects. We thus need to generalize and unify them under a common framework for enabling researchers to easily transform genetic effects between different biological meanings. The Natural and Orthogonal Interactions (NOIA) model of genetic effects has been developed to achieve this aim. Here, we further implement the statistical formulation of NOIA with multiple alleles under Hardy-Weinberg departures (HWD). We show that our developments are straightforwardly connected to the decomposition of the genetic variance and we point out several emergent properties of multiallelic quantitative genetic models, as compared to the biallelic ones. Further, NOIA entails a natural extension of one-locus developments to multiple epistatic loci under linkage equilibrium. Therefore, we present an extension of the orthogonal decomposition of the genetic variance to multiple epistatic, multiallelic loci under HWD. We illustrate this theory with a graphical interpretation and an analysis of published data on the human acid phosphatase (ACP1) polymorphism. © 2011 The Author(s).


Alvarez-Castro J.M.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Yang R.-C.,Research and Innovation Division | Yang R.-C.,University of Alberta
Frontiers in Genetics | Year: 2012

Fisher's concepts of average effects and average excesses are at the core of the quantitative genetics theory. Their meaning and relationship have regularly been discussed and clarified. Here we develop a generalized set of one locus two-allele orthogonal contrasts for average excesses and average effects, based on the concept of the effective gene content of alleles. Our developments help understand the average excesses of alleles for the biallelic case. We dissect how average excesses relate to the average effects and to the decomposition of the genetic variance. © 2012 Álvarez-Castro and Yang.


Yang R.-C.,University of Alberta | Juskiw P.,Research and Innovation Division
Canadian Journal of Plant Science | Year: 2011

Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) is a statistical technique that combines the methods of the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and regression analysis. However, ANCOVA is an advanced topic that often appears towards the end of many textbooks, and thus, it is either taught cursorily or ignored completely in many statistics classes. Additionally, many elaborated applications of ANCOVA to agronomy and crop research along with uses of the latest statistical software are rarely described in textbooks or classes. The objectives of this paper are to provide an overview on conventional ANCOVA and to introduce more advanced uses of ANCOVA under mixed models. We describe three elaborate applications including (i) the use of ANCOVA for dissecting dosage responses for different treatments, (ii) stability of treatments across multiple environments and (iii) removal of spatial variation that is not effectively controlled by blocking. These analyses illustrate that ANCOVA is either a simpler analysis or provides more information than conventional statistical methods. We provide a technical appendix (Appendix A) on principles and theory underlying mixed-model analysis of ANCOVA along with SAS programs (Appendix B) for more uses and in-depth understanding of this powerful technique in agronomy and crop research.


Jiang Q.,University of Alberta | Wang Z.,University of Alberta | Moore S.S.,University of Alberta | Yang R.-C.,University of Alberta | Yang R.-C.,Research and Innovation Division
BMC Genetics | Year: 2012

Background: Linkage disequilibrium (LD) between genes at linked or independent loci can occur at gametic and zygotic levels known asgametic LD and zygotic LD, respectively. Gametic LD is well known for its roles in fine-scale mapping of quantitative trait loci, genomic selection and evolutionary inference. The less-well studied is the zygotic LD and its components that can be also estimated directly from the unphased SNPs. Results: This study was set up to investigate the genome-wide extent and patterns of zygotic LD and its components in a crossbred cattle population using the genomic data from the Illumina BovineSNP50 beadchip. The animal population arose from repeated crossbreeding of multiple breeds and selection for growth and cow reproduction. The study showed that similar genomic structures in gametic and zygotic LD were observed, with zygotic LD decaying faster than gametic LD over marker distance. The trigenic and quadrigenic disequilibria were generally two- to three-fold smaller than the usual digenic disequilibria (gametic or composite LD). There was less power of testing for these high-order genic disequilibria than for the digenic disequilibria. The power estimates decreased with the marker distance between markers though the decay trend is more obvious for the digenic disequilibria than for high-order disequilibria. Conclusions: This study is the first major genome-wide survey of all non-allelic associations between pairs of SNPs in a cattle population. Such analysis allows us to assess the relative importance of gametic LD vs. all other non-allelic genic LDs regardless of whether or not the population is in HWE. The observed predominance of digenic LD (gametic or composite LD) coupled with insignificant high-order trigenic and quadrigenic disequilibria supports the current intensive focus on the use of high-density SNP markers for genome-wide association studies and genomic selection activities in the cattle population. © 2012 BioMed Central Ltd.

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