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Cini A.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Cini A.,Italian Agricultural Research Council | Anfora G.,Research and Innovation Center and Technology Transfer Center | Escudero-Colomar L.A.,IRTA - Institute of Agricultural-Alimentary Research and Technology | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Pest Science | Year: 2014

Biological invasions are a leading threat to native wildlife, human health and food production worldwide. Understanding the invasion history helps identifying introduction pathways and organizing integrated management strategies especially aimed at avoiding multiple reintroductions. We coupled a recently developed spatial analysis (Geographic profiling) with trade flows quantification to identify the most likely spreading centre of a recent invader of Europe, the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii. This polyphagous vinegar fly recently colonized western countries, where it is heavily threatening fruit production causing severe economic losses. Characterized by a rapid spread and a huge impact, the invasion of this pest has a few precedents and it is becoming a model in invasion biology and pest management. Thanks to our spatial approach based on data presence of D. suzukii in European countries in the very first years of it spread, we update the current knowledge of a first spread in Spain and Italy, suggesting on the contrary that the South of France may be the most likely spreading centre of D. suzukii in Europe. Estimates of propagule pressure (fresh host fruits importation) support this finding as imports from contaminated South East Asian countries are higher in France than in Spain or Italy. Our study provides a first step in the comprehension of invasion history of this pest species and emphasizes geographic profiling as an efficient technique to track down invaders colonization patterns. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Wiman N.G.,Oregon State University | Dalton D.T.,Oregon State University | Anfora G.,Research and Innovation Center and Technology Transfer Center | Biondi A.,University of Catania | And 15 more authors.
Journal of Pest Science | Year: 2016

Drosophila suzukii causes economic damage to berry and stone fruit worldwide. Laboratory-generated datasets were standardized and combined on the basis of degree days (DD), using Gompertz and Cauchy curves for survival and reproduction. Eggs transitioned to larvae at 20.3 DD; larvae to pupae at 118.1 DD; and pupae to adults at 200 DD. All adults are expected to have died at 610 DD. Oviposition initiates at 210 DD and gradually increases to a maximum of 15 eggs per DD at 410 DD and subsequently decreases to zero at 610 DD. These data were used as the basis for a DD cohort-level population model. Laboratory survival under extreme temperatures when DD did not accumulate was described by a Gompertz curve based on calendar days. We determined that the initiation of the reproductive period of late dormant field-collected female D. suzukii ranged from 50 to 800 DD from January 1. This suggests that D. suzukii females can reproduce early in the season and are probably limited by availability of early host plants. Finally, we used the DD population model to examine hypothetical stage-specific mortality effects of IPM practices from insecticides and parasitoids at the field level. We found that adulticides applied during the early season will result in the largest comparative population decrease. It is clear from model outputs that parasitism levels comparable to those found in field studies may have a limited effect on population growth. Novel parasitoid guilds could therefore be improved and would be valuable for IPM of D. suzukii. © 2016 The Author(s) Source


Rossi Stacconi M.V.,Research and Innovation Center and Technology Transfer Center | Buffington M.,Systematic Entomology Laboratory | Daane K.M.,University of California at Berkeley | Dalton D.T.,Oregon State University | And 11 more authors.
Biological Control | Year: 2015

Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) causes severe damage to certain fruit crops in both North America and Europe. This may be due, in part, to the absence of specialized natural enemies that suppress population outbreaks. We performed a series of experiments under controlled laboratory conditions in tandem with a field study to evaluate the presence and efficacy of natural enemies associated with this pest in Italian and western United States fruit production regions. Our study involved one larval parasitoid, Leptopilina heterotoma (Thomson) (Hymenoptera: Figitidae), and two pupal parasitoids, Pachycrepoideus vindemiae (Rondani) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) and Trichopria drosophilae (Perkins) (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae). Three indices were used to describe host-parasitoid interactions: degree of infestation (DI), success rate of parasitism (SP) and total encapsulation rate (TER). Results confirmed that each of these parasitoid species can develop on certain populations of the pest. In addition, host stage preferences of the tested parasitoid populations, developmental parameters and lifetime fecundity of North American P. vindemiae are provided. Results are discussed with respect to differences in potential utilization of D. suzukii among the tested parasitoid species and regional populations. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source


Miller B.,Oregon State University | Anfora G.,Research and Innovation Center and Technology Transfer Center | Buffington M.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Daane K.M.,University of California at Berkeley | And 12 more authors.
Bulletin of Insectology | Year: 2015

For the first time we report the results of a survey to determine the presence, seasonal phenology and biological control status of indigenous parasitoid populations utilizing Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) and Drosophila melanogaster Meigen (Diptera Drosophilidae) as hosts in Trento Province, Northern Italy, and the Willamette Valley, Oregon, USA. Larval and pupal parasitoids were sampled using sentinel traps baited with larvae of D. suzukii or D. melanogaster, or traps baited with fruit or yeast-based host substrates. Two generalist parasitoids, Pachycrepoideus vindemiae (Rondani) (Hymenoptera Pteromalidae) and Leptopilina heterotoma (Thomson) (Hymenoptera Figitidae) emerged from the sentinel traps in both regions, and a third generalist parasitoid, Trichopria drosophilae Perkins (Hymenoptera Diapriidae), was found in Italy. L. heterotoma was present during the early portion of the season in Italy while P. vindemiae was found throughout the growing season in both production regions. Low numbers of parasitoids relative to initial larval load in baits suggest a limited effect of indigenous parasitoids on D. suzukii in these two important fruit production regions. These findings highlight the need for improved biological control of D. suzukii through introduction or augmentation of specialist parasitoids from the native range of D. suzukii. This report provides baseline data on the current status of biological control of D. suzukii in Italy and Oregon. © 2015, Universita degli Studi di Bologna, Department of Agroenvironmental Sciences and Technologies. All Rights Reserved. Source


Wiman N.G.,Oregon State University | Walton V.M.,Oregon State University | Dalton D.T.,Oregon State University | Anfora G.,Research and Innovation Center and Technology Transfer Center | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Temperature-dependent fecundity and survival data was integrated into a matrix population model to describe relative Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) population increase and age structure based on environmental conditions. This novel modification of the classic Leslie matrix population model is presented as a way to examine how insect populations interact with the environment, and has application as a predictor of population density. For D. Suzukii, we examined model implications for pest pressure on crops. As case studies, we examined model predictions in three small fruit production regions in the United States (US) and one in Italy. These production regions have distinctly different climates. In general, patterns of adult D. Suzukii trap activity broadly mimicked seasonal population levels predicted by the model using only temperature data. Age structure of estimated populations suggest that trap and fruit infestation data are of limited value and are insufficient for model validation. Thus, we suggest alternative experiments for validation. The model is advantageous in that it provides stage-specific population estimation, which can potentially guide management strategies and provide unique opportunities to simulate stage-specific management effects such as insecticide applications or the effect of biological control on a specific life-stage. The two factors that drive initiation of the model are suitable temperatures (biofix) and availability of a suitable host medium (fruit). Although there are many factors affecting population dynamics of D. Suzukii in the field, temperature-dependent survival and reproduction are believed to be the main drivers for D. Suzukii populations. © 2014 Wiman et al. Source

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