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San Michele, Italy

Fabbro A.,University of Trieste | Sucapane A.,University of Trieste | Toma F.M.,University of Trieste | Calura E.,University of Padua | And 13 more authors.

In the last decade, carbon nanotube growth substrates have been used to investigate neurons and neuronal networks formation in vitro when guided by artificial nano-scaled cues. Besides, nanotube-based interfaces are being developed, such as prosthesis for monitoring brain activity. We recently described how carbon nanotube substrates alter the electrophysiological and synaptic responses of hippocampal neurons in culture. This observation highlighted the exceptional ability of this material in interfering with nerve tissue growth. Here we test the hypothesis that carbon nanotube scaffolds promote the development of immature neurons isolated from the neonatal rat spinal cord, and maintained in vitro. To address this issue we performed electrophysiological studies associated to gene expression analysis. Our results indicate that spinal neurons plated on electro-conductive carbon nanotubes show a facilitated development. Spinal neurons anticipate the expression of functional markers of maturation, such as the generation of voltage dependent currents or action potentials. These changes are accompanied by a selective modulation of gene expression, involving neuronal and non-neuronal components. Our microarray experiments suggest that carbon nanotube platforms trigger reparative activities involving microglia, in the absence of reactive gliosis. Hence, future tissue scaffolds blended with conductive nanotubes may be exploited to promote cell differentiation and reparative pathways in neural regeneration strategies. © 2013 Fabbro et al. Source

Rizzetto L.,University of Florence | Giovannini G.,University of Perugia | Bromley M.,University of Manchester | Bowyer P.,University of Manchester | And 3 more authors.

For over a century microbiologists and immunologist have categorized microorganisms as pathogenic or non-pathogenic species or genera. This definition, clearly relevant at the strain and species level for most bacteria, where differences in virulence between strains of a particular species are well known, has never been probed at the strain level in fungal species. Here, we tested the immune reactivity and the pathogenic potential of a collection of strains from Aspergillus spp, a fungus that is generally considered pathogenic in immuno-compromised hosts. Our results show a wide strain-dependent variation of the immune response elicited indicating that different isolates possess diverse virulence and infectivity. Thus, the definition of markers of inflammation or pathogenicity cannot be generalized. The profound understanding of the molecular mechanisms subtending the different immune responses will result solely from the comparative study of strains with extremely diverse properties. © 2013 Rizzetto et al. Source

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