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Qin Y.,Shandong University of Technology | Guo T.,Shandong University of Technology | Li G.,Shandong University of Technology | Tang T.-S.,CAS Institute of Zoology | And 8 more authors.
PLoS Genetics | Year: 2015

Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a rare, heterogeneous disorder characterized by cessation of menstruation occurring before the age of 40 years. Genetic etiology is responsible for perhaps 25% of cases, but most cases are sporadic and unexplained. In this study, through whole exome sequencing in a non-consanguineous family having four affected members with POF and Sanger sequencing in 432 sporadic cases, we identified three novel mutations in the fusion gene CSB-PGBD3. Subsequently functional studies suggest that mutated CSB-PGBD3 fusion protein was impaired in response to DNA damage, as indicated by delayed or absent recruitment to damaged sites. Our data provide the first evidence that mutations in the CSB-PGBD3 fusion protein can cause human disease, even in the presence of functional CSB, thus potentially explaining conservation of the fusion protein for 43 My since marmoset. The localization of the CSB-PGBD3 fusion protein to UVA-induced nuclear DNA repair foci further suggests that the CSB-PGBD3 fusion protein, like many other proteins that can cause POF, modulates or participates in DNA repair. © 2015 Qin et al. Source

Qin Y.,Shandong University | Vujovic S.,University of Belgrade | Li G.,Shandong University | Li J.,University of Leicester | And 10 more authors.
Maturitas | Year: 2014

Objective To identify whether variants found in a large Han Chinese cohort - 8q22.3 SNPs rs3847153 and rs3108910; and one SNP each in HK3 (rs2278493), ESR1 (rs2234693) and BRSK1 (rs12611091) - are associated with premature ovarian failure (POF) in a different ethnic group (Serbian). Design Case-control genetic association study in 197 Serbian POF cases and 552 matched controls. Results None of the SNPs found associated with POF in Chinese cohort were found to be associated in the Serbian sample. Conclusions In contrast to Han Chinese, no association was found between POF in Serbian women and any of the four tested loci: 8q22.3, HK3, ESR1 and BRSK1. This indicates that ethnically distinct populations may show differences in gene-regulating pathways and genes causing POF. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

Qin Y.,Shandong University | Jiao X.,Shandong University | Simpson J.L.,Research and Global Programs March of Dimes Foundation | Simpson J.L.,Florida International University | And 2 more authors.
Human Reproduction Update | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND: Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) is characterized by marked heterogeneity, but with a significant genetic contribution. Identifying exact causative genes has been challenging, with many discoveries not replicated. It is timely to take stock of the field, outlining the progress made, framing the controversies and anticipating future directions in elucidating the genetics of POI. METHODS: A search for original articles published up to May 2015 was performed using PubMed and Google Scholar, identifying studies on the genetic etiology of POI. Studies were included if chromosomal analysis, candidate gene screening and a genome-wide study were conducted. Articles identified were restricted to English language full-text papers. RESULTS: Chromosomal abnormalities have long been recognized as a frequent cause of POI, with a currently estimated prevalence of 10-13%. Using the traditional karyotype methodology, monosomy X, mosaicism, X chromosome deletions and rearrangements, X-autosome translocations, and isochromosomes have been detected. Based on candidate gene studies, single gene perturbations unequivocally having a deleterious effect in at least one population include Bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15), Progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1), and Fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) premutation on the X chromosome; Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9), Folliculogenesis specific bHLH transcription factor (FIGLA), Newborn ovary homeobox gene (NOBOX), Nuclear receptor subfamily 5, group A, member 1 (NR5A1) and Nanos homolog 3 (NANOS3) seem likely as well, but mostly being found in no more than 1-2% of a single population studied. Whole genome approaches have utilized genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to reveal loci not predicted on the basis of a candidate gene, but it remains difficult to locate causative genes and susceptible loci were not always replicated. Cytogenomic methods (array CGH) have identified other regions of interest but studies have not shown consistent results, the resolution of arrays has varied and replication is uncommon. Whole-exome sequencing in non-syndromic POI kindreds has only recently begun, revealing mutations in the Stromal antigen 3 (STAG3), Synaptonemal complex central element 1 (SYCE1), minichromosome maintenance complex component 8 and 9 (MCM8, MCM9) and ATP-dependent DNA helicase homolog (HFM1) genes. Given the slow progress in candidate-gene analysis and relatively small sample sizes available for GWAS, family-based whole exome and whole genome sequencing appear to be the most promising approaches for detecting potential genes responsible for POI. CONCLUSION: Taken together, the cytogenetic, cytogenomic (array CGH) and exome sequencing approaches have revealed a genetic causation in ~20-25% of POI cases. Uncovering the remainder of the causative genes will be facilitated not only by whole genome approaches involving larger cohorts in multiple populations but also incorporating environmental exposures and exploring signaling pathways in intragenic and intergenic regions that point to perturbations in regulatory genes and networks. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. Source

Jiao X.,Shandong University of Technology | Qin Y.,Shandong University of Technology | Li G.,Shandong University of Technology | Zhao S.,Shandong University of Technology | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background:The etiology of most premature ovarian failure (POF) cases is usually elusive. Although genetic causes clearly exist and a likely susceptible region of 8q22.3 has been discovered, no predominant explanation exists for POF. More recently, evidences have indicated that mutations in NR5A1 gene could be causative for POF. We therefore screened for mutations in the NR5A1 gene in a large cohort of Chinese women with non-syndromic POF.Methods:Mutation screening of NR5A1 gene was performed in 400 Han Chinese women with well-defined 46,XX idiopathic non-syndromic POF and 400 controls. Subsequently, functional characterization of the novel mutation identified was evaluated in vitro.Results:A novel heterozygous missense mutation [c.13T>G (p.Tyr5Asp)] in NR5A1 was identified in 1 of 384 patients (0.26%). This mutation impaired transcriptional activation on Amh, Inhibin-a, Cyp11a1 and Cyp19a1 gene, as shown by transactivation assays. However, no dominant negative effect was observed, nor was there impact on protein expression and nuclear localization.Conclusions:This novel mutation p.Tyr5Asp, in a novel non-domain region, is presumed to result in haploinsufficiency. Irrespectively, perturbation in NR5A1 is not a common explanation for POF in Chinese. © 2013 Jiao et al. Source

Guo T.,Shandong University of Technology | Qin Y.,Shandong University of Technology | Jiao X.,Shandong University of Technology | Li G.,Shandong University of Technology | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Background: In premature ovarian failure (POF), cessation of menstruation occurs before the expected age of menopause. Approximately 1% of women are affected. FMR1 premutation was reported to be responsible for up to 3.3%-6.7% of sporadic POF and 13% of familial cases in Caucasians, while the data was absent in Chinese population. Therefore, the impact of FMR1 CGG repeat on ovarian reserve is needed to be investigated in large Chinese cohort. Methods: The number of FMR1 CGG repeat was determined in 379 Han Chinese women with well-defined 46, XX nonsyndromic sporadic POF and 402 controls. The age of menopause onset in respect to CGG repeats was further analyzed. Results: The frequency of FMR1 premutation in Han Chinese POF was only 0.5% (2/379), although it was higher than that in matched controls (0%, 0/402), it was much lower than that reported in Caucasian with POF (3.3%-6.7%). The prevalence of intermediate FMR1 (41-54) was not increased significantly in sporadic POF than that in controls (2.9% vs. 1.7%, P = 0.343). However, POF patients more often carried a single additional CGG repeat in a single allele than did fertile women (allele-1: 29.7 vs. 28.8, P<0.001; allele-2: 32.6 vs. 31.5, P<0.001). POF patients with both alleles of CGG repeats outside (below or above) the normal range (26-34) showed an earlier age of cessation of menses than those with two alleles within normal range (hom-high/high vs. norm: 20.4±4.8 vs. 24.7±6.4, p<0.01; hom-low/high vs. norm: 18.7±1.7 vs. 24.7±6.4, p<0.01). Conclusions: FMR1 premutation seems to be an uncommon explanation for POF in Han Chinese. However, having both alleles with CGG repeats outside the normal range might still adversely affect ovarian aging. © 2014 Guo et al. Source

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