Research and Extension Center for Fruit Growing

Újfehértó, Hungary

Research and Extension Center for Fruit Growing

Újfehértó, Hungary
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Laznik Z.,University of Ljubljana | Toth T.,Research and Extension Center for Fruit Growing | Lakatos T.,Research and Extension Center for Fruit Growing | Vidrih M.,University of Ljubljana | Trdan S.,University of Ljubljana
Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment | Year: 2010

The efficacy of three new strains (B30, B49 and 3162) of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema feltiae in controlling rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae) adults was tested in a laboratory bioassay. The aim of the study was to determine the activity of selected biological control agents against one of the most important primary stored product pests to prevent the occurrence of rice weevil resistance to insecticides. The pathogenicity of biological agents was studied at four different temperatures (15, 20, 25 and 30°C) and for five concentrations of nematode suspension (125, 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 IJs per adult). Beetle mortality was determined on 4, 6 and 8 days after treatment. The results showed that all studied strains were most pathogenic (42-72% mortality) at 25°C and the highest concentration of the nematode suspension, while the lowest pathogenicity (from 6 to 11%) was found at 30°C and the lowest concentration of the nematode suspension. Besides, at higher concentrations the suspension of entomopathogenic nematodes can be an effective biological agent in controlling adult rice weevils. The lowest LC 50 value (1165 IJs/adult after an 8-day exposure) was obtained for the Hungarian strain 3162 at 25°C, while the highest (2533 IJs/adult after an 8-day exposure) was obtained for the Slovenian strain B30 at 30°C.


Toth T.,Research and Extension Center for Fruit Growing | Lakatos T.,Nemaform Ltd | Koltay A.,Hungarian Forest Research Institute
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology | Year: 2013

Seven Gram-negative bacterial strains were isolated from oozing bark canker of poplar (Populus×euramericana) trees in Hungary. They showed high (.98.3 %) 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Lonsdalea quercina; however, they differed from this species in several phenotypic characteristics. Multilocus sequence analysis based on three housekeeping genes (gyrB, atpD and infB) revealed, and DNA-DNA hybridization analysis confirmed, that this group of bacterial strains forms a distinct lineage within the species Lonsdalea quercina. A detailed study of phenotypic and physiological characteristics confirmed the separation of isolates from poplars from other subspecies of L. quercina; therefore, a novel subspecies, Lonsdalea quercina subsp. populi, type strain NY060T (5DSM 25466T=NCAIM B 02483T), is proposed. © 2013 IUMS.


Nyeki J.,Debrecen University | Papp N.,Debrecen University | Lakatos L.,Debrecen University | Soltesz M.,Debrecen University | And 6 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

Analyses of flowering phenology were carried out at Újfehé rtó, Hungary and Oppenheim, Germany. In our long-term project, 88 sour cherry cultivars from Újfehértó and 105 cultivars from Oppenheim were evaluated over 27 and 12 years, respectively. All sour cherry cultivars from Újfehértó are characterized by the same late flowering period, which generally started on the 111th day (Julian days) of the year and finished on the 121st day. Besides genotype, several external factors have been shown to significantly influence the start of flowering period, which was closely correlated with the differences between day and night temperatures over the 30 days before flowering. In Oppenheim, 'Gerema' and 'Schattenmorelle' were characterized by extremely late bloom dates. Sour cherry cultivars selected in the region of NorthEastern Hungary are characterized by high fruit set after open pollination, exceeding 20%. The highest fruit set ratio (26.9%) was obtained with 'Petri'. In Oppenheim, 'Schattenmorelle' was characterized by 15-20% autogamous fruit set, while open pollination set approx. 30-40% of fruits. In Újfehértó, over 27 years, flowers were destroyed by serious frost injury in two years. Based on several characteristics, the two late blooming cultivars that have been recently released, 'Petri' and 'Éva', appear be promising choices for commercial orchards in Hungary.


Papp N.,Corvinus University of Budapest | Papp N.,Debrecen University | Szilvassy B.,Corvinus University of Budapest | Abranko L.,Corvinus University of Budapest | And 7 more authors.
International Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2010

Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) cultivars native to Hungary and some of them grown worldwide, display great phenotypic variability. Eleven sour cherry cultivars were analysed for their main quality attributes including fruit weight, soluble solid content, acidity, pH, specific sugars (glucose and fructose), antioxidant capacity as well as total polyphenolic (TPC), total anthocyanin (TMAC) and vitamin C contents. Results showed wide variation in both fruit quality and antioxidant parameters of Hungarian sour cherries. The anthocyanin contents varied from 11.3 to 93.5 mg/100 g. An amarelle-type cultivar, 'Pipacs 1' showed the highest antioxidant capacity (21.85 mmol AA L-1), TPC (49.04 mg GA L-1) and vitamin C (8.98 mg/100 g) content. Key enzymes in anthocyanin biosynthesis were expressed in both yellow-coloured flesh and red skin of 'Pipacs 1' fruits at all ripening stages. The detected diversity presents a choice that can satisfy different consumer preferences, and meet specific nutritional requirements. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Institute of Food Science and Technology.


Asadollahi M.,Debrecen University | Szojka A.,Debrecen University | Fekete E.,Debrecen University | Karaffa L.,Debrecen University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology | Year: 2013

Quinol oxidation inhibitors (QoIs) are one of the most important classes of fungicides used in agriculture. They block electron transfer between cytochrome b and cytochrome c1, thereby impeding the production of ATP via oxidative phosphorylation. QoI fungicides are generally at high risk of provoking resistance in fungal phytopathogens. Resistance has been reported in more than thirty species, amongst others, in Botrytis cinerea. In various QoI-resistant monosporic B. cinerea isolates from Hungary, a G-to-C point mutation was identified in the mitochondrial gene that encodes the QoI target, cytochrome b, resulting in a glycine to alanine substitution at position 143 (G143A). Analysis of Hungarian group I and group II strains further indicated the frequent occurrence of an additional group I-type intron in the cytb gene directly downstream of the glycine-143 codon. Mutual presence of distinct mitochondrial DNAs specifying different cytb alleles (heteroplasmy) has also been detected in monosporic strains. Remarkably, a number of group II field isolates were found to be highly resistant to azoxystrobin although they did not appear to carry the G-to-C mutation (G143A) generally associated with fungal QoI-resistance.


Persely Sz.,Debrecen University | Ertsey I.,Debrecen University | Nyeki J.,Debrecen University | Soltesz M.,Debrecen University | And 4 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

County Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg produces more than the half of the total sour cherry crop in Hungary. Successful production, i.e., yield, depends largely on weather conditions. Most attention should be paid to the weather during bloom, which affects both fruit quality as well as quantity. To predict yields, characterisation of the most important weather parameters is necessary. For that purpose, the database of the Institute of Research and Extension Service for Fruit Growing at Újfehértó Ltd. has been utilised. Records of weather conditions were collected throughout the period 1984-2005, i.e., daily minimum, maximum and mean temperatures (°C), precipitation (mm), and phenological records for the sour cherry varieties 'Újfehértói fürtös', 'Kántorjánosi' and 'Debreceni botermo'. Data of 7 indicators have been analyzed: 1) number of frosty days, 2) the absolute minimum temperatures, 3) means of minimum temperatures, 4) number of days when daily means were above 10°C, 5) means of maximum temperatures, 6) number of days without precipitation, and 7) number of days when precipitation was more than 5 mm. Not only were the changes from 1984 to 2005 documented, but estimates were attempted for changes expected during future decades as well. A predictive model to estimate temperature and precipitation values for 2020-2051 suggests that spring frost events will be increasingly rare, but rain events will increase during bloom. The indicators associated with certain risky events may facilitate prediction of future recommendations to prevent crop damage.


Persely Sz.,Debrecen University | Ladanyi M.,Corvinus University of Budapest | Szabo T.,Research and Extension Center for Fruit Growing
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

The last decades have shown that climatic changes, especially increased temperatures, have influenced phenology, i.e., rate of growth and development of plants. To assess these effects, phenological studies became a topic of special interest and have been undertaken. Research at Újfehértó, the Research Institute of Fruit Growing and Extension, has utilised a database of meteorological data and the parallel phenological diary for the sour cherry varieties 'Újfehértói fürtös', 'Kántorjánosi' and 'Debreceni botermo' from 1984-1991. The method of calculating the sum of daily mean temperatures, "degree days", is based on the observation that the plants are able to utilise cumulatively - in growth and development - the temperature above a set base temperature. Our phenology model examined the correlation between the sum of degree days and the date of sprouting (budburst). The base temperature was determined by optimization, above which (threshold temperature) the accumulation of daily means was most active, or alternatively, below which the daily means were most sensitively expressed in the phenology. The model has been extended to the calculation of the end of the rest period (endodormancy) by optimization as well. Our phenology model will be suitable for two main purposes: for estimating the time of budburst for the Hungarian region during future decades calculated on the basis of regionally downscaled climate models; on the other hand, by applying our model, the risk of damage caused by spring frosts could be estimated more exactly.


Farkas A.,University of Pécs | Mihalik E.,University of Szeged | Dorgai L.,Biocenter Ltd. | Buban T.,Research and Extension Center for Fruit Growing
Trees - Structure and Function | Year: 2012

Erwinia amylovora, the causative agent of fire blight, colonizes primarily the flowers of the sub-family Maloideae. Commercially important fruit tree species such as apple (Malus domestica) and pear (Pyrus communis) are also affected by the disease. Epiphytic bacterial populations develop on the stigma, from where the pathogen colonizes the hypanthium, aided by moisture. Under favorable conditions, nectar provides a rich medium for growth, which allows bacterial invasion of tissues through the stomata of the nectary. The paper reviews various floral traits that may play a role in the onset and progression of the infection. Flower age, stigma morphology and longevity, the size of epiphytic bacterial population, morphology of the hypanthium, anatomy of the nectary, dynamics of nectar secretion, as well as the volume, concentration and composition of the nectar are discussed in detail, comparing traits of susceptible versus tolerant apple and pear cultivars. Management programs, aiming at the suppression of E. amylovora on floral parts by antibiotics, chemical compounds, natural substances or biological control agents, are also discussed. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


PubMed | Research and Extension Center for Fruit Growing
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology | Year: 2013

Seven Gram-negative bacterial strains were isolated from oozing bark canker of poplar (Populus euramericana) trees in Hungary. They showed high (>98.3%) 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Lonsdalea quercina; however, they differed from this species in several phenotypic characteristics. Multilocus sequence analysis based on three housekeeping genes (gyrB, atpD and infB) revealed, and DNA-DNA hybridization analysis confirmed, that this group of bacterial strains forms a distinct lineage within the species Lonsdalea quercina. A detailed study of phenotypic and physiological characteristics confirmed the separation of isolates from poplars from other subspecies of L. quercina; therefore, a novel subspecies, Lonsdalea quercina subsp. populi, type strain NY060(T) (=DSM 25466(T)=NCAIM B 02483(T)), is proposed.

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