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Toth T.,Research and Extension Center for Fruit Growing | Lakatos T.,Nemaform Ltd | Koltay A.,Hungarian Forest Research Institute
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology | Year: 2013

Seven Gram-negative bacterial strains were isolated from oozing bark canker of poplar (Populus×euramericana) trees in Hungary. They showed high (.98.3 %) 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Lonsdalea quercina; however, they differed from this species in several phenotypic characteristics. Multilocus sequence analysis based on three housekeeping genes (gyrB, atpD and infB) revealed, and DNA-DNA hybridization analysis confirmed, that this group of bacterial strains forms a distinct lineage within the species Lonsdalea quercina. A detailed study of phenotypic and physiological characteristics confirmed the separation of isolates from poplars from other subspecies of L. quercina; therefore, a novel subspecies, Lonsdalea quercina subsp. populi, type strain NY060T (5DSM 25466T=NCAIM B 02483T), is proposed. © 2013 IUMS. Source


Farkas A.,University of Pecs | Mihalik E.,University of Szeged | Dorgai L.,Biocenter Ltd. | Buban T.,Research and Extension Center for Fruit Growing
Trees - Structure and Function | Year: 2012

Erwinia amylovora, the causative agent of fire blight, colonizes primarily the flowers of the sub-family Maloideae. Commercially important fruit tree species such as apple (Malus domestica) and pear (Pyrus communis) are also affected by the disease. Epiphytic bacterial populations develop on the stigma, from where the pathogen colonizes the hypanthium, aided by moisture. Under favorable conditions, nectar provides a rich medium for growth, which allows bacterial invasion of tissues through the stomata of the nectary. The paper reviews various floral traits that may play a role in the onset and progression of the infection. Flower age, stigma morphology and longevity, the size of epiphytic bacterial population, morphology of the hypanthium, anatomy of the nectary, dynamics of nectar secretion, as well as the volume, concentration and composition of the nectar are discussed in detail, comparing traits of susceptible versus tolerant apple and pear cultivars. Management programs, aiming at the suppression of E. amylovora on floral parts by antibiotics, chemical compounds, natural substances or biological control agents, are also discussed. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source


Papp N.,Corvinus University of Budapest | Papp N.,Debrecen University | Szilvassy B.,Corvinus University of Budapest | Abranko L.,Corvinus University of Budapest | And 7 more authors.
International Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2010

Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) cultivars native to Hungary and some of them grown worldwide, display great phenotypic variability. Eleven sour cherry cultivars were analysed for their main quality attributes including fruit weight, soluble solid content, acidity, pH, specific sugars (glucose and fructose), antioxidant capacity as well as total polyphenolic (TPC), total anthocyanin (TMAC) and vitamin C contents. Results showed wide variation in both fruit quality and antioxidant parameters of Hungarian sour cherries. The anthocyanin contents varied from 11.3 to 93.5 mg/100 g. An amarelle-type cultivar, 'Pipacs 1' showed the highest antioxidant capacity (21.85 mmol AA L-1), TPC (49.04 mg GA L-1) and vitamin C (8.98 mg/100 g) content. Key enzymes in anthocyanin biosynthesis were expressed in both yellow-coloured flesh and red skin of 'Pipacs 1' fruits at all ripening stages. The detected diversity presents a choice that can satisfy different consumer preferences, and meet specific nutritional requirements. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Institute of Food Science and Technology. Source


Asadollahi M.,Debrecen University | Szojka A.,Debrecen University | Fekete E.,Debrecen University | Karaffa L.,Debrecen University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology | Year: 2013

Quinol oxidation inhibitors (QoIs) are one of the most important classes of fungicides used in agriculture. They block electron transfer between cytochrome b and cytochrome c1, thereby impeding the production of ATP via oxidative phosphorylation. QoI fungicides are generally at high risk of provoking resistance in fungal phytopathogens. Resistance has been reported in more than thirty species, amongst others, in Botrytis cinerea. In various QoI-resistant monosporic B. cinerea isolates from Hungary, a G-to-C point mutation was identified in the mitochondrial gene that encodes the QoI target, cytochrome b, resulting in a glycine to alanine substitution at position 143 (G143A). Analysis of Hungarian group I and group II strains further indicated the frequent occurrence of an additional group I-type intron in the cytb gene directly downstream of the glycine-143 codon. Mutual presence of distinct mitochondrial DNAs specifying different cytb alleles (heteroplasmy) has also been detected in monosporic strains. Remarkably, a number of group II field isolates were found to be highly resistant to azoxystrobin although they did not appear to carry the G-to-C mutation (G143A) generally associated with fungal QoI-resistance. Source


Persely Sz.,Debrecen University | Ertsey I.,Debrecen University | Nyeki J.,Debrecen University | Soltesz M.,Debrecen University | And 4 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

County Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg produces more than the half of the total sour cherry crop in Hungary. Successful production, i.e., yield, depends largely on weather conditions. Most attention should be paid to the weather during bloom, which affects both fruit quality as well as quantity. To predict yields, characterisation of the most important weather parameters is necessary. For that purpose, the database of the Institute of Research and Extension Service for Fruit Growing at Újfehértó Ltd. has been utilised. Records of weather conditions were collected throughout the period 1984-2005, i.e., daily minimum, maximum and mean temperatures (°C), precipitation (mm), and phenological records for the sour cherry varieties 'Újfehértói fürtös', 'Kántorjánosi' and 'Debreceni botermo'. Data of 7 indicators have been analyzed: 1) number of frosty days, 2) the absolute minimum temperatures, 3) means of minimum temperatures, 4) number of days when daily means were above 10°C, 5) means of maximum temperatures, 6) number of days without precipitation, and 7) number of days when precipitation was more than 5 mm. Not only were the changes from 1984 to 2005 documented, but estimates were attempted for changes expected during future decades as well. A predictive model to estimate temperature and precipitation values for 2020-2051 suggests that spring frost events will be increasingly rare, but rain events will increase during bloom. The indicators associated with certain risky events may facilitate prediction of future recommendations to prevent crop damage. Source

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