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Fassier T.,University of Lyon | Valour E.,University of Lyon | Colin C.,University of Lyon | Colin C.,Evaluation and Research Unit | Danet F.,University of Lyon
Annals of Emergency Medicine | Year: 2016

Study objective We explored physicians' perceptions of and attitudes toward triage and end-of-life decisions for elderly critically ill patients at the emergency department (ED)-ICU interface. Methods This was a qualitative study with thematic analysis of data collected through semistructured interviews (15 emergency physicians and 9 ICU physicians) and nonparticipant observations (324 hours, 8 units, in 2 hospitals in France). Results Six themes emerged: (1) Physicians revealed a representation of elderly patients that comprised both negative and positive stereotypes, and expressed the concept of physiologic age. (2) These age-related factors influenced physicians' decisionmaking in resuscitate/not resuscitate situations. (3) Three main communication patterns framed the decisions: interdisciplinary decisions, decisions by 2 physicians on their own, and unilateral decisions by 1 physician; however, some physicians avoided decisions, facing uncertainty and conflicts. (4) Conflicts and communication gaps occurred at the ED-ICU interface and upstream of the ED-ICU interface. (5) End-of-life decisions were perceived as more complex in the ED, in the absence of family or of information about elderly patients' end-of-life preferences, and when there was conflict with relatives, time pressure, and a lack of training in end-of-life decisionmaking. (6) During decisionmaking, patients' safety and quality of care were potentially compromised by delayed or denied intensive care and lack of palliative care. Conclusion These qualitative findings highlight the cognitive heuristics and biases, interphysician conflicts, and communication gaps influencing physicians' triage and end-of-life decisions for elderly critically ill patients at the ED-ICU interface and suggest strategies to improve these decisions. © 2015 American College of Emergency Physicians.

Ahmed S.M.,Research and Evaluation Division | Zerihun A.,Evaluation and Research Unit
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

Background: The use of insecticidal bed nets is found to be an effective public health tool for control of malaria, especially for under-five children and pregnant women. BRAC, an indigenous Bangladeshi non-governmental development organization, started working in the East African state of Uganda in June 2006. As part of its efforts to improve the health and well-being of its participants, BRAC Uganda has been distributing long lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLIN) at a subsidized price through health volunteers since February 2008. This study was conducted in March-April 2009 to examine how equitable the programme had been in consistence with BRAC Uganda's pro-poor policy. Methodology/Principal Findings: Information on possession of LLINs and relevant knowledge on its proper use and maintenance was collected from households either with an under-five child and/or a pregnant woman. The sample included three villages from each of the 10 branch offices where BRAC Uganda's community-based health programme was operating. Data were collected by trained enumerators through face-to-face interviews using a hand-held personal digital assistant (PDA). Findings reveal that the study population had superficial knowledge on malaria and its transmission, including the use and maintenance of LLINs. The households' rate of possession of bed nets (41-59%), and the proportion of under-five children (17-19%) and pregnant women (25-27%) who reported sleeping under an LLIN were not encouraging. Inequity was observed in the number of LLINs possessed by the households, in the knowledge on its use and maintenance, and between the two programme areas. Conclusions/Significance: The BRAC Uganda's LLINs distribution at a subsidized price appeared to be inadequate and inequitable, and BRAC's knowledge dissemination is insufficient for initiating preventive actions such as proper use of LLINs to interrupt malaria transmission. Findings contribute to the on-going debate on LLINs distribution in Africa and make a strong case for its free distribution. © 2010 Ahmed, Zerihun.

Cawthorpe D.,Child and Adolescent Mental Health and Addictions Program | Cawthorpe D.,University of Calgary | Wilkes T.C.R.,Child and Adolescent Mental Health and Addictions Program | Wilkes T.C.R.,University of Calgary | And 3 more authors.
Canadian Journal of Psychiatry | Year: 2011

Objective: To compare the health costs of groups with and without psychiatric diagnoses (PDs) using 9 years of physician billing data. Methods: A dataset containing registration data for all patients receiving public mental health service was constructed and subsequently matched, on age and sex, in a final patient to comparison patient ratio of 1:8, with health care users who did not receive treatment in the mental health system. Three groups emerged: a patient PD group-patients with psychiatric disorders treated in public mental health care (n = 76 677); a comparison patient PD group-comparison patients with PDs treated in physicians only (n = 277 627); and a patient-comparison patient non-PD group-patients (treated in specialized publicly funded care or by their physician) without PDs (n = 329 177). Examining over 42 million billing records for all of these patients, we compared the average number of visits and the average health only (nonpsychiatric) billing cost per each patient during the 9-year study period across the groups. Results: Among all health care users in the data, the health costs (Total Costs - Mental Health Costs) were greater on average for the patients with PD group ($3437) and the comparison patient PD group ($3265), compared with patient-comparison patient non-PD group ($1345). Forty-six percent of the comparison sample had a PD. Conclusions: Having a mental health problem is related to greater health-related expenditures. This has important policy implications on how mental health resources are constructed and rationed within the health care system.

Baqui A.H.,Johns Hopkins University | Baqui A.H.,International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research | Williams E.,Evaluation and Research Unit | El-Arifeen S.,International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Perinatology | Year: 2016

Objectives:Community-based maternal and newborn intervention packages have been shown to reduce neonatal mortality in resource-constrained settings. This analysis uses data from a large community-based cluster-randomized trial to assess the impact of a community-based package on cause-specific neonatal mortality and draws programmatic and policy implications. In addition, the study shows that cause-specific mortality estimates vary substantially based on the hierarchy used in assigning cause of death, which also has important implications for program planning. Therefore, understanding the methods of assigning causes of deaths is important, as is the development of new methodologies that account for multiple causes of death. The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of two service delivery strategies (home care and community care) for a community-based package of maternal and neonatal health interventions on cause-specific neonatal mortality rates in a rural district of Bangladesh.Study design:Within the general community of the Sylhet district in rural northeast Bangladesh. Pregnancy histories were collected from a sample of women in the study area during the year preceding the study (2002) and from all women who reported a pregnancy outcome during the intervention in years 2004 to 2005. All families that reported a neonatal death during these time periods were asked to complete a verbal autopsy interview. Expert algorithms with two different hierarchies were used to assign causes of neonatal death, varying in placement of the preterm/low birth weight category within the hierarchy (either third or last). The main outcome measure was cause-specific neonatal mortality.Result:Deaths because of serious infections in the home-care arm declined from 13.6 deaths per 1000 live births during the baseline period to 7.2 during the intervention period according to the first hierarchy (preterm placed third) and from 23.6 to 10.6 according to the second hierarchy (preterm placed last).Conclusion:This study confirms the high burden of neonatal deaths because of infection in low resource rural settings like Bangladesh, where most births occur at home in the absence of skilled birth attendance and care seeking for newborn illnesses is low. The study demonstrates that a package of community-based neonatal health interventions, focusing primarily on infection prevention and management, can substantially reduce infection-related neonatal mortality. © 2016 Nature America, Inc.

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